Scott Griffiths, Robert C. Coulter, and Charles Casswell
The Public Service Journal 13 (June 15, 1912).
W. Scott Griffiths( 1863-1929), Robert Chas. Gibbon [sic] Coulter (1865- ? ) and Charles Henry Caswell (1859-1916) submitted a design that the minority judge nominated for first prize. Not long after the competition was decided the Government purchased this design, adding it to the three prize-winners whose proposals were to be examined by a group of ministry officers.
In June, 1912 the Public Service Journal published biographical sketches of the three competitors, portions of which follow:
"Mr. Walter Scott Griffiths...has had an extensive and varied actual experience in survey practice which enabled him to carry out the important and intricate task of the original Fire Hazard Survey of the City of Brisbane, and later the Revision Fire Hazard Surveys of the cities and principal towns of New Zealand.
"Mr. Griffiths entered the Public Service in the year 1889, and was employed as a Detail Survey Draftsman in the Department of Public Works and latterly, as a Survey Engineering Draftsman in the Water Supply and Sewerage Construction Branch up to the time of retrenchment in 1904, when Mr. Griffiths held the position of Senior Survey Draftsman on the Professional Relieving Staff.
"Mr. Griffiths, after serving a short term with the Western Australian Government, returned to his native State and commenced his present business of municipal, shire, and general map publisher, and his labours in this capacity are well-known and appreciated by the more prominent local government bodies.
"Mr. Griffiths has served in his professional capacity on a large number of Royal Commissions, and in connection with this work, his Honor Judge Murray, recognizing his ability, made special references to his capabilities in his report to the Governor-General.
"In connection with the design for the Federal City of Australia, Mr. Griffiths' department was that of town-planning, which embraced the arrangement of roads. avenues, grades. etc., all, of course, being subject to the fitting in with his colleagues architectural and engineering features...."
"Mr. Coulter [,T]he principal in the Australian design co-ordinated and arranged the architectural and artistic features and planned the buildings, etc., into the positions that meant the coherence of the whole design, and also made the perspective views of the city--which accompanied the plans. Like the other members of the trio, who gained such distinction in the Federal City Competition, he is an Australian, having been born in Parramatta, N.S.W.
"On leaving school, he went under indentures in the office of a city architect, and has ever since been engaged in architectural and artistic pursuits.
"Mr. Coulter was for a long time an exhibiting member of the Royal Art Society, and was for five years a student in the antique and life classes-and for the last eleven years has been connected with the Government Architects' Office, where he is an assistant architect. Although not making any claims to belong to that mysterious band who have loomed so largely of late in the press, `the great town planners of the world,' Mr. Coulter can claim as much experience in such matters as most professional men in Australia, and has studied all the available literature and plans dealing with the subject. When New South Wales was being searched in many directions for a Suitable site for a capital, he had the honor of accompanying Col. Vernon--late Government Architect of New South Wales, to each of the suggested sites--to assist in the examination of their claims and to make sketches, etc., and afterwards to lay out tentative plans and views of possible cities thereon.
"He visited the Canberra site on five occasions, and on the last visit made the large panoramic views in color which accompanied the conditions, in connection with the Federal City Competition. Photographs taken of large vague areas of Country are totally un-convincing and found quite unsuitable.
"It was whilst engaged on many occasions in the preparation of the sketches mentioned, and the consequent close examination of the country that Mr. Coulter gained such a special knowledge of the site...
"Mr. Coulter had some further experience in the planning of cities later on, as his services were granted by the Government to the Royal Commission on City Improvement in 1909, and he spent about twelve months making sketches and plans of the various schemes brought forward--some of which may be found illustrated in the Report issued by the Commission.
"Incidentally he was permitted to introduce some ideas of his own, and a portion of one, viz.: the re-modelling of Circular Quay and surroundings and Macquarie Street North, seems just now to have a chance of being carried out.
"Mr. Coulter is at present engaged in the laying-out of the model suburb "Daceyville"--under orders, of course--and finds it interesting work.
"With regard to the plan for which he is responsible, in conjunction with Messrs. Griffiths and Caswell, Mr. Coulter thinks it is a good one, not perfect, perhaps, but eminently suited to the site.
"After all the long search to find a piece of country, elevated, well situated and nicely undulating, and then having found it, to level and transform it out of recognition seems absurd.
"The designers endeavour was to preserve every natural interesting feature and take advantage of every view point.
"As Raymond Unwin, the principal English authority on town-planning says in his work on that subject:-`"The designer must cherish such a love for all natural beauty, as will help him to realise the importance of incorporating his design with the site and arranging his scheme of layingout, so that it will serve as a means of harmonizing his buildings with the surrounding country;' and again, `It is foolish to pay heavily for a scheme securing a degree of symmetry that is only discernible on paper or from a balloon....'
"Mr. C. H. Caswell, who was responsible for the engineering features of the design, at present Resident Engineer-in-charge of the construction of the Sewerage Works at Lithgow, is the third son of the late Mr. W. Stewart Caswell ex-police magistrate of Moruya, Goulburn, etc.. He entered the Public Service on 1st July, 1880, as a draftsman in the Railway construction branch of the P.W.D. Having qualified as licensed surveyor he was appointed as a railway surveyor in 1885, and was engaged principally in locating the North Coast Railway in the "Big Scrub Country," where he did meritorious work. He subsequently joined the sewerage Construction branch in 1895, and assisted in locating and surveying a large number of the main sewers of the city of Sydney, a work of very intricate character, and which demanded infinite accuracy, patience, and skill. He also supervised the construction of the deep tunnel Bondi eastern slopes and Coogee outfall sewers. He again joined the Railway construction branch in Eagle, but in the retrenchment year of 1904 was temporarily transferred to the office of the Registrar-General and to the office of the Board of Water Supply and Sewerage, where he had the opportunity to accumulate an experience which has been extremely valuable in later years. He rejoined the P.W. Dept. in 1905, and has been connected with the sewerage construction branch ever since, designing in the interval the sewerage schemes of Camden Goulburn, Lithgow, outfall sewer of Orange, Albury and Dubbo...."
Griffiths went on to pursue a career in town planning. In 1916 he prepared a residential plan for a farm on Botany Bay, and a year later at a conference on planning in Adelaide he presented his version of how a city block should be laid out based on Raymond Unwin's concepts illustrated in the latter's "Nothing Gained by Overcrowding"....
Griffiths succeeded William J. Earle as Government Town Planner for South Australia in 1922 and served in that capacity until his death in 1929. In his report for 192425 he used as an illustration a model "Garden Suburb" for 1000 dwellings and 60 public and commercial uses. Although that was never constructed, Griffiths or others directly supervised by him planned a number of small new towns. They included Thevenard and Peebinga (1923), Kringin (1924), Caliph, Yinkanie and Wunkar (1926), Waddikee (1927), and Peachna and Tooligie (1929).
Of all the participants in the competition, Caswell's account of the event, together with his notes, letters, and newspaper cuttings, provides by far the best information we have on how a participant (in this case, a team) approached the work and reacted to the results. His version can be found in a typed statement in the Manuscripts Section, National Library of Australia titled "The Following is the Story or History of what is now Known as Design No. 10 of the Competition for the Best Design for the Australian Federal Capital at Canberra."
Being a design for the laying out of the Federal City at Canberra, in the State of New South Wales by which the sites for the various Public Buildings are located, together with the course and width of Avenues, Streets, Lanes, and Parkways; also Ornamental Lake, Railways, Main Sewers, Stormwater Channels, and other Public Works all of which are shown as located on contour plan.
It may be remarked, however, that this is almost superfluous, as a glance at the Design Plan and at the large size painting will serve to convey to the mind what is hereabout to be described.
The "key" to the ultimate success of the design lies in a common-sense selection of the most effective site for the House of Parliament, and "Camp Hill" is herein the favoured spot, for reasons which are here-in-after set forth.
The following features have been provided within situations at:
(1) Residence of Governor-general--On the lower eastern slopes
of "Black Mountain."
(2) Public Buildings--Encircling an area set apart for House of Parliament.
(3) Residential Areas--chiefly on the north side of the Molonglo River, and also on the west and south of the House of Parliament.
(4) Ornamental Water--Effected by damming the Molonglo River, near the western boundary of the City Area.
(5) Factory Area--In the extreme south-east corner and extending in that direction.
(6) Sports Area--Between the Factory Area and the Molonglo River.
The details of these and of the remaining features are described hereafter.
This cut will be the maximum throughout the whole of the Design.
The grades have been closely followed, and it is only in an exceptional case where 1 in 20 has been adopted, and in no case of great length, the average grade being about 1 in 40 approaching rising ground, and an average in the commercial area of 1 in 50 to 1 in 60.
AVENUES & STREETS
The Avenues are from 150 ft to 400 ft. wide, and the main streets are from 100 to 120 ft. and the intervening streets from 60 ft to 100 ft., the former being for access only and are of short length.
All lanes are 30 ft wide in the City, this width having been adopted as sufficient to allow through traffic between stationary vehicles.
The building blocks within the City or Commercial area are so arranged that there is no greater length than 600 feet between intervening streets.
The area on the south west of the House of Parliament surrounding the hospital site, is provided with radiating avenues 150 ft. wide, with a parkway in the centre 50 ft. wide, the streets being 70 ft. wide.
The area southwest of the House of Parliament is designed for the industrial class, being close and accessible to the city and factory sites. Main Avenues from 120 ft. to 150 ft. run through this area with parkways in the centre, the connecting streets being 70 ft. wide. The allotments are 50 ft. by 150 ft., which should enable each house to stand well within its grounds, and in addition an area within each block is provided for a playing area for children, and if suitably planted would also act as a recreation area for adults. Dividing the areas is a park centrally situated, also a centre for post offices, schools, etc.
Another centre is provided for a large recreation hall, school and Post Office, situated on the north west of the last mentioned area.
These are all grouped together and careful provision is made to meet dense traffic by providing sufficient room for the movement of trams and vehicular traffic. There are only 3 ways of access, 2 by road and 1 by rail. The main one being at the main railway station--at this point no congestion could occur, as ample provision has been provided nearly 600 ft. wide, the other means of access is by bridge over the railway at a point near the Casualty Hospital, where full access can be obtained. Access is also given by a loop line of railway which also is intended for use in connection with carriage of materials to and from the factories which are situated east of the Sports Areas.
SUBURBS NORTHERN SIDE OF LAKE.
This area is to be entirely residential, except of course, what is necessary for immediate special requirements, such as tradesmen's Shops here and there. There are several large main avenues, and the streets are from 70 ft. to 100 ft. wide. The allotments are about 70 ft. by 180 ft. to 200 ft.
Department of Prime Minister.
" " External Affairs.
" " Home Affairs.
" " Treasury.
" " Trade and Customs.
" " Defence.
And it is suggested that the buildings above mentioned be kept, whilst classical in architectural style, of a profound horizontal treatment, as a foil to the more soaring aspect of the House of Parliament itself.
RESIDENCE OF GOVERNOR GENERAL
An area has been allotted for this on the eastern slopes of the Black Mountain, this being the very best residential position on the site, as it has an easterly aspect, is elevated and well sheltered from the severe winds.
An avenue connects it with the Secondary Railway Station and another to the water-side, and it is thought that a very pleasant variety of travel route to the House of Parliament and Administrative Offices would be afforded the Governor-General in going by motor-boat from this landing to a landing place in the small bay adjoining the University Boat Sheds. The style of architecture favoured for the residence would be French of the 16th Century.
PRIME MINISTER'S RESIDENCE
This is placed under the lee of "Kurrajong" and in close touch with the Administrative Buildings and House of Parliament, at the same time having a view at the end of an avenue running north-west from the ornamental "Place" on which faces the Courts of Justice.
The style of architecture suggested for this building is Georgian with a well-defined classical feeling
The Courts of Justice have been placed fronting the open "Place" terminating the avenue running southwest from the Railway Station, and although in a position where they are easily accessible, one is not confronted with them immediately upon arrival in the city, and prisoners being moved to and from the Gaol, or to the Criminal Courts on the opposite side of the street, need not be taken through the main city.
PLACES OF WORSHIP
The two main places of worship have been placed in the Park and Gardens area, to the north-west of the House of Parliament, where it is thought that they will have a suitable setting amongst the foliage of the park, and have that necessary quietude that is so suitable for ecclesiastical buildings, besides making conspicuous objects in the picture which first meets the eye on entering the city. Other places of worship have been placed in positions where they are readily accessible to the Inhabitants, namely:--one in a position at the rear of "Vernon"--one near the Market Place for day services), one in the centre of the residential group to the south-west of the main city, and another in a space to the west of "Kurrajong." This in addition to the existing Canberra Church, which it is proposed to retain on account of its historic importance.
The Mint has been placed on a separate block, and within easy distance of the Administrative Buildings, with proper smoke consuming appliances, it is hoped that its necessary chimney will not be found a nuisance, but in any case, the prevailing winds will carry any such smoke or fumes away from the main city.
NATIONAL ART GALLERY
This is placed to the north-west of the House of Parliament and grouped with Technical College and University.
This is placed on the main avenue, leading to the House of Parliament.
This building is placed on "Vernon," and would be a building in very severe classical style--probably Grecian Doric, and would, with its parks, stairways, and terraces, embrace the whole of the space shown on the plan. It is suggested that it be made a repository for historical papers, and objects and matters connected with the History of the Commonwealth, and include a Hall of Fame, to the honour of celebrated men and heroes.
his is placed on the next block to the Mint--probably the whole of the work in this building would be carried on by electrical power--hence no smoke nuisance would ensue. It is thought that the position is suitable as it is contiguous to the Administrative Offices.
Placed in the extreme south-east corner of the site, so that whilst easily reached by the railway, the smoke and fumes are carried completely away from the city, and the noise would be unnoticeable.
The spot selected for these buildings is to the north-west of the House of Parliament, and is suitable on account of its quietude and the opportunity that exists of utilising the low ground to the north-west of it for play-grounds merging into the formal park and garden spread out in the front of the picture as one approaches by the main bridge entrance. In addition, as the buildings could be probably Gothic in style, they would somewhat link up well with the Cathedrals, besides adding to the picturesqueness of this important part of the city.
Placed in the same locality as the University and Art-Gallery, thus creating an educational centre or zone.
This fronts the open "Place" with fountains and statuary on the direct route from the Railway Station to the House of Parliament, and would, with its own gardens, occupy the entire block.
GENERAL POST OFFICE
This occupies a separate block to the south of the City Hall, a branch office is placed at the junction of avenues running southwest and north and to the south of Courts of Justice, and another on the north side of Lake near the Secondary Railway Station.
Placed in the main avenue opposite to the Library.
PRIMARY RAILWAY STATION
The Main or Terminal Railway Station has been, after much consideration, located in a position set forth on the plan at the intersection of nine radial streets, leading from all points of the city (1) as the point providing the greatest convenience to the greater number of the future population; (2) as the point (as an integral part of this design) providing the most effect in keeping with the symmetry of the design. It will be noted as unusual that the rail level is fixed at ten feet above the surface, this has been decided upon with the object of securing effects, both utilitarian and aesthetical, attention is here invited to drawings (Scheme "A" & Scheme "B") which sets forth the working arrangements and constructional design, the main feature of which is the subway, from which it is intended to give access to the various platforms by means of lifts and stairs, as additional to that provided by the embossing ramp and trams. It is claimed for this arrangement of traffic access that it provides the simplest means of handling a maximum of traffic with a minimum of congestion--a most desirable feature in the hasty movement of large bodies of troops.
The trams would run up on ramps from the main street and along the station front, giving a straight tram line at that point, of 300 feet---the station being 800 feet by 200 feet at the street level. There will be a large "Place" laid out in the best manner, with gardens, statuary, electric standards, etc., and a cab rank on either side. All baggage would be passed from the platform level to the baggage room below and removed at the subway level.
The residence of the Station-master will be on the upper floor to the right, and refreshment rooms, etc., on the upper floor to the left and overlooking the magnificent view of the lake and surroundings.
The Architectural style of a suggested Station is shown by a sketch and also a diagram and explanatory plan and section. A second station is proposed on the north side of the lake, giving access to the Governor-General's residence and the residential area--also to the Review Grounds, etc.
RAILWAY MARSHALLING YARDS
A space of 20 acres has been allotted for this purpose and the whole of it screened from the town by buildings of good architectural style on the City face, and they will consist of Stores and goods stations etc.
Placed to the west of the city with ample space for drill grounds, adjoining and in a direct line of march to the Review Grounds to the north by the bridge over the lake, to the north east of the House of Parliament. An alternative position is suggested to the west of the secondary station on the north side of the lake.
On the opposite side north of the Courts of Justice
About one mile to the west of the city on the east side of the knoll, which will afford some shelter from the westerly winds.
Two in number, one to the south west of the city and in the centre of a populous residential area, and surrounded by parks and gardens. One to the south east, on elevated ground and contiguous to the Factory area which position is suitable, as in the event of casualties it may mean the difference between life and death. The aspect in one case is north east, and in the other north west.
This is located in the open garden "Place" on the main avenue and opposite the City Hall. It occupies a complete block (an essential matter) and has gardens with statuary surrounding it.
CENTRAL POWER STATION--Placed at the city end of the Factory area and in immediate touch with the railway line.
In the same area, but placed as far south east as possible.
Immediately adjoining the Goods Station and served directly by the Railway Line, so that produce can be received and dispatched without delay or inconvenience.
This is the main sports area, to the east of the Railway Station, where have been grouped cricket, football and baseball grounds, racecourse, gymnasium and swimming baths, tennis grounds and space for bowls and croquet, etc.
The Stadium is directly in the line of the main avenue leading from the Railway Station, and would present an imposing front closing the vista down the avenue.
The entrance would be classical, with arched openings with columns and pediment and surmounted with statuary appropriate to athletics.
The Racecourse would be served by a railway branching from the main line and returning by a loop through the Factory Site and thence to the main line. A good architectural effect could be gained by grouping the Racecourse Railway station, the arched Main Entrance and the Main Grandstand.
This would be a free institution connected with the swimming-baths and containing an assembly hall, out-door gymnasia for males and females, and separate space for children, and ought to be a boon to the inhabitants. owing to its situation in the athletic area.
Golf Links have been located on the area to the north of Jerrabombera Creek, this space being liable to flood (although this is a remote contingency) and owing to its low elevation, is always well grassed and should make an ideal links of ample area. A golf house would be as shown on view, raised on a plateau above all flood levels. The Links are reached by a foot-bridge over the Creek.
As Motor Boating will probably be one of the main sports in this city, it has been thought advisable to allot a special area on the point at the junction of the Molonglo River and Jerrabombera Creek, for a boat-building and housing yard. The building would naturally be of an appropriate type owing to its conspicuous position, and might be made a very interesting spot.
SCHOOLS - FIRE STATION
A secondary centre has been formed at the south west of the Courts of Justice in the Residential Area and contains a School Auditorium and combined Library and Post-Office, grouped round ornamental grounds. Schools would be placed also in touch with the two residential zones to the west and north of the city.
Fire Station facing the Market Place.
PARKS & GARDENS
It has been thought advisable to maintain the whole of the front to the lake as a park and garden area.
The railway severance which seems unavoidable, has been screened by hedges on both sides, and access to the park to the north east of the main city is gained by taking advantage of a knoll which provides easy access over the line and connecting with an avenue 200 ft. wide leading from the House of Parliament over the railway line and continuing on the water side. It is hoped that this avenue will be one of the most successful points in this plan. The best view on the site, looking towards Mount Ainslie, is kept in view, but a special idea has been incorporated with it in that it will be the principal view point for sunsets and sunrises which are specially magnificent in this locality.
A rotunda has been planned at the end of the avenue where it crosses the railway line, and in this is placed a circular masonry pavilion, and from this pavilion and its vicinity an exceptionally fine view of the sunsets reflected in the waters of the lake can be obtained. It is proposed to call this avenue "The Avenue of the Sun." Passing on towards the lake from the pavilion a wide masonry space crosses the railway line and is carried out in the best architectural manner where it enters the gardens.
Proceeding by massive stairways embellished with statuary, we pass on to a continuation of the tree planting of the avenue which is extended until it meets with the ornamental boat houses and wharf and building.
The area called "Kurrajong" on contour map has been formed into a park surmounted by a massive monument and a driveway planned, encircling the hill from the roadway below. The slopes would be laid out in a formal manner with shaped and clipped trees surrounding the monument. The park will merge into the grounds of the Prime Minister's residence, and from a "Place" with central fountain at city level, an ornamental and statuaried stairway will lead up the slope to the monument.
The view of the city from the monument should be a popular one with visitors, either by motor or otherwise (see view from this point in large-size painting) .
The lower lying land to the north and west of the University has been formed into a park treated in a formal manner where it fronts the University and buildings in the main avenue, and afterwards to the west in a less formal manner. Playing fields, in connection with the colleges, are in the area between them and the lake.
It has been though advisable to keep the space to the north east of the House of Parliament free from buildings as far as possible, so that an uninterrupted view to the north east can be obtained. The only buildings coming into the picture will be the Cathedrals. These grounds would be laid out in the very best formal manner. On the north side of the lake a large area has been allotted to Parks, Botanical Gardens, Acclimatization gardens--one feature being a space of some acres for special fruit growing, with a museum, etc., attached to same. A visit to these gardens would probably be of interest to visitors if the idea be carried out in a thorough manner. Buildings containing museums, etc., connected with botany and agriculture and kindred subjects would be in this area.
Passing on to the south-east, we come to the Zoological Gardens, and further on the Show Ground, readily accessible by land and water. The water front would be a specially good feature.
Smaller parks are shown in various positions where they will afford pleasure and health to the residents.
LANDINGS & WHARFS
It is hoped to make a feature on the Lake sides of Boat Buildings, which should he treated in a good architectural manner, one of the more notable being on the rounded headland at the end of the avenue leading to the State House. This it is proposed to treat in a special manner with colonnade and massive landing and stairway. In the centre would be a commemorative column of considerable height standing on a Sculptured base.
The two bridges at the entrance to the city from the north would be connected with a masonry wall with balustrades and statuary and electric light sculptured standards.
On the north side of the Lake, near the Bridges, a large college or high school is shown, which will serve to carry the eye on to the finish of the picture in the Black Mountain. Slightly towards the west is a casino with bridge connecting same to an island on which is a pavilion connected with the swimming baths which adjoin.
The casino would have a theater and refreshment room, etc. To the north of the Botanical Gardens is a large area for military review purposes, having at one end a large monument to the memory of national heroes. Still further north is a park for airplanes and a college for the teaching of aeronautics, and buildings, hangars, etc. Here the airplanes of the future would alight and messages be taken readily to the main centres. An alternative position for Military Barracks is suggested to the north west of the secondary Railway Station. It possesses some advantages in that it has ready access to the Railway Station and Review Grounds.
It is proposed to form two islands in the lake, one in connection with the casino, and another to the east of the city, having bridge connection to the city and east side of the lake. On it would be a picturesque building devoted to some form of pleasure or amusement. This building and wooded island would form an agreeable feature in the south east view down the lake and also somewhat screen the industrial buildings in the back ground.
The main north entrance over the lake to the city is by a massive masonry bridge over 800 feet long with pylons on each side, surmounted with bronze groups of statuary, and with electric light sculptured standards at frequent intervals placed along the parapets
The steel Railway Bridge would, of course, be in any well-known type, but an arched form has been thought the most picturesque, this bridge would be 1,000 feet long, and would have massive masonry pylons at each end. The bridge leading from the City to the north east side of the lake would be a somewhat similar one to that first described, but treated in a less massive manner, the pylons giving place to a lighter architectural form with entablatures and columns and marble sculptured groups surmounting same.
The bridge connecting the Island to the City would be a much simpler and lighter type and constructed of reinforced concrete. A Roadway, in connection with the Park system, has been planned, extending from the weir and following the Lake sides right round to the island bridge, and thence into the city.
Another roadway extends along the Lake side to the west of the main City from near the University to the peninsular to the west and back past the Barracks and "Kurrajong" Park into the City. It is thought that these driveways will be much appreciated by motorists.
It is suggested that the higher portions of Mt. Ainslie be used as a Fort commanding the City, and the midway ridge as a Sanatorium.
1. Securing to the traveller and visitor in his approach to the city
the most pleasant views and vistas, not only of the City and its environs,
but of the magnificent panoramic views which abound within the Federal
2. Securing symmetrical proportion with the design in view with a minimum of objections usually associated with this necessary means of locomotion and world-wide convenience.
3. Providing convenient access in keeping with the Design to all parts of the City with the possibility of congestion reduced to a minimum.
It is claimed for this Design that all these objects have been attained. The approaches by rail to many of the more beautiful cities of the world are laid out through scenes and architecture of the most hideous description, and the effect upon the feelings of the visitor is naturally most depressing, and much beauty and adornment of the internal arrangements subsequently go for naught in removing the effect of that first impression..
The visitor to the Federal City from the north approach, if carried over the route suggested by this design, would be met by vistas and views so charming and numerous that the effect will, upon the first occasion, create a feeling of bewilderment, and when the building of the city shall have reached reasonable proportions, it will not be too much to say that the effect upon most minds will be the desire to revisit the spot with the object of repeating the experience. The Secondary Railway Station on the north side of the ornamental lake has been located on the summit of an eminence R.L. of which is 1,881 ft., it is proposed to reduce this by excavation to R. L. 1,875 ft., the views from this point will be very beautiful and grand. On the one hand, in the far distance, snow-capped peaks of the high chain of mountains bordering the valley of the Murrumbidgee River, with the varied tints of the foot hills of the Narrabundah Range in the middle distance, and the waters of the ornamental lake in the foreground with the residence of the Governor-General as a special object of interest. On the other hand, looking south and southeast, the first object to strike the earnest gaze of the traveler, will be the magnificent pile of the Houses of Parliament, standing out prominently amongst the surrounding foliage of its grounds, with the various Public Buildings in the lower foreground, forming a pleasing setting for this noble pile. In the nearer distance is again the ornamental lake confined by the symmetrical curvature of masonry walls, backed by Park Lands, judiciously planted to secure colour effect, not to mention the architectural beauty of the Railway Bridge which will later assist the traveler to reach the goal of his mission in approaching the final stage of his journey
A description of the Main Railway Station will be found under "Architectural Aspects."
Another engineering feature of the grading of this railway is that all access to either side of the line is by subway or overway bridge, level crossings have been studiously avoided for obvious reasons. The original route of the Railway, it may be pointed out, provided little scope in this respect for easy means of access. The curves adopted are of moderate radii, and the grades are easy.
1. Its influence upon the climate, winter or summer, will conduce to the comfort of the inhabitants .
2. It will provide a common resort for recreation for the residents of all parts of the city.
3. It will provide unusual scope for indulging in the pastimes of rowing, sailing, motor-boat racing, and swimming, each of which will have an elevating influence upon the characters and bodily health of the youth of the City.
4. It will provide an unique means by which the City may be decorated by illuminations upon occasions of carnival.
5. Last, but not least, the opportunity to provide this City with an aesthetic charm will be thrown away if this treatment of the valley of the Molonglo be not adopted.
A glance at the wall painting of the proposed city will be convincing as to the serious loss of character to the city if this ornamental water scheme be withdrawn. Its character will be as insipid as Soap without salt.
DAM OR WEIR
Two sites have been suggested as satisfactory for weirs in "Requirements" under this head. That in line between "Sullivan" and "Shale" has been adopted for the purposes of this Design, as it will provide greater security for the Dam, in-as-much that a spillway can be constructed through the low ridge at a point 50 chains to the north of the Dam site, the position of both of which are indicated on the plan. This spillway would also provide an outfall for the storm water channel described below.
In the absence of data as to the character of the strata of the foundations at the Dam site, it is unwise to give details of measurements and quantities, but it may be sufficient to say here, that the dam should be straight and founded on solid rock; that it should be about 50 ft. above the river bed, and have a top width of 10 ft. and a bottom width of about 50 ft.
This would impound about 1000 ac. of water at top water level of R.L. 1820 ft. The capacity of the water impounded would be equal to roughly 400,000,000 cubic feet and would back up the river to a point beyond the eastern boundary of the City.
THE CATCHMENT AREA
of the Molonglo River and tributaries is given as 700 square miles, and the average annual rainfall as about 23 inches. The run-off for an area such as this, subject to conditions of occasional drought may safely be estimated at not exceeding 10 per cent. of the average rainfall; therefore, approximately the area mentioned would discharge about 4,000,000,000 cubic ft. of water annually equal to 10 times the capacity of the Ornamental Lake.
It is stated that two regulating weirs will be provided about 14 miles above the City Site to control the flood waters and to maintain a constant level in the ornamental lake. It is recommended that a third regulating weir should be constructed some few miles above the City of lesser capacity than those further up stream, for the purpose of impounding the probable large body of silt, which might otherwise threaten the capacity of the ornamental lake.
The city area has been divided into two districts which are separated by the ornamental Lake formed by damming the Molonglo River. That on the South will be mainly served by the extension of the Main outfall, or gravitating sewer, and comparatively very little of this district will go to low level areas. That on the North will be entirely low level, and the sewage will be collected and pumped from Pumping Station No. 3, located near the northern approach to the Railway Bridge, through cast-iron pipes (Rising Main), supported in part by the railway bridge and delivered into the Main outfall sewer at a point about 16,000 feet from the Western boundary of the city, in its course to the Treatment Works.
There are two low level areas on the South side which are commanded by Pumping Stations Nos. 3 and 4, which will deliver the sewage into the Main outfall sewer at points as indicated by the general plan of the Design .
The sewers have been designed on an allowance of 50 gallons per head per day with a maximum rate of flow of 7 per cent. per hour to run off in six hours. This will probably exceed the actual flow which the sewers will eventually account for.
The main outfall sewer will be a 3 ft. 3 in x 2 ft. 2in oval sewer of concrete moat and brick arch. This sewer will have a capacity equal to the sewage of a population of 50,000 and will discharge the sewage of a population of 25,000 running half full at a velocity of 1.85 feet per second. It will be necessary therefore during the period of the earlier growth of the City to flush this sewer, in order to prevent the accumulation of deposit, which is likely to occur under the conditions of a low velocity. It is unnecessary to provide further details of the lesser sized sewers, suffice it to say that they have been designed on the same basis as the main sewer above described, and assurance is here given that their capacity is ample to accommodate all the sewage of the districts through which they are located with efficient velocities. It has been shown that the Main Outfall sewer will accommodate the sewage of a population of 50,000.
The sewers discharging into Pumping Station No. 3 have a capacity equal to a population of 33,000, so that it will be seen the sewer provision for this design is ample for any reasonable growth of the City within the next 50 years.
The Pumping Stations will not emit any offensive effluvia nor will they be an eyesore, as they will be placed mainly underground, and operated by Electric Power from the Controlling Station, probably located at P.S. No. 2.
The sub-mains and reticulation sewers have not been located, as it is merely a matter of convenience as, to where they will be located since the grade to be obtained are satisfactory. The reticulation sewers, however should be laid at the rear of tenements or buildings wherever practicable in order to avoid the occasional necessity of disturbing the surface of expensively laid Street surfaces, and it is generally more satisfactory to the householder that the connection to the main sewer should be at the rear.
THE PIPE SEWERS will consist of well-made vitrified earthenware pipes, which will last a lifetime.
THE RISING MAINS are located from each pumping station to the respective adjoining main sewer, as shown upon the plan. They consist of Cast-Iron Pipes hermetically sealed, laid below the surface, except in the case of the rising metal from Pumping station No. 3, where advantage has been taken of the railway bridge to support the pipes in its passage across the waters of the ornamental Lake.
For the purposes of the calculations, it has been assumed that the density of population will be about 25 persons per acre, and that the City will reasonably be expected to grow to 25,000 in the next 25 years. Therefore, the area required for habitations will be 1,000 acres. To this must be added 30 per cent, for streets and parks, giving a total area of 1,300 acres required for occupation. Allowing I inch of rainfall per hour as a maximum, to cope with which a sewer could reasonably be expected to be constructed, it is estimated that a run off of 1,000 cubic ft. per second from the total area of 1,300 acres may be anticipated as follows:-
40% of 1,300 ac.= impervious surface Cusecs
= say 550 ac. @ 1 cub. ft. per sec. per ac.
50% run-off from 750 ac., representing
Parks and Gardens = 375
Total run-off from 1,300 acs. = 925
It is estimated that two covered channels 15 ft. by 5 ft. will discharge this run-off on a grade of 1 in 1,000 hence the location of such a sewer on the grade mentioned, has been provided for on either side of the ornamental Lake. The outfall in each case has been carried beyond the site of the dam, that on the north side should discharge at the proposed spillway for the Lake.
As for the disposal of the foul water, it may be judiciously diluted with the waters of the Molonglo River, below the proposed dam, as is frequently done in such cases in America, or it may be carried further and treated upon prepared filter beds before escaping into the river.
Overflows are provided at intervals to ease the sewer in the event of surcharging, at which stage very little, if any, pollution need be feared.
As the area of the City extends further, provision for the interception of additional foul water can be provided by constructing sewers on the higher contours. The unpolluted storm water at the rear of the City area may be conducted into the natural channels, and thence controlled in pipe sewers and discharged into the lake, which is the best method of protecting the city area from inundation by undue discharge from the higher contours.
All Departments of the Design have been subjected to exert criticism, and all of the proposals in the engineering section, etc., are the outcome of the application of up-to-date methods and formulae. Every line laid down has been tested as to efficiency.
It is claimed that this Design provides the means for the creation of a noble and beautiful city, symmetrical in design, with commodious thoroughfares, attractive water-ways, and imposing buildings, all combining to make the City what it should be--Queen City of the Southern Hemisphere--and worthy of the Commonwealth of Australia, where the legislative efforts of the representatives of the people cannot fail to be characterized by the nobility and beauty of environment.