NARRATIVE COLLECTION POLICY STATEMENT
PHYSICAL SCIENCES LIBRARY
Draft for Comment 1994
Chemistry1.0 Programmatic information:
The study of chemistry has been of primary importance at Cornell since the university was founded in 1865. The graduate Field of Chemistry comprises 38 faculty members with diverse research interests in both conventional chemistry areas and many interdisciplinary areas such as biotechnolgy, chemical communications, polymer science, and molecular engineering. The faculty currently includes a Nobel laureate, six members of the National Academy of Sciences, seven fellow the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and seven fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences. Working with the faculty are almost 200 graduate students, numerous resident postdoctoral fellows, visiting scientists, and undergraduate chemistry majors.
In additional to direct support of the Department of Chemistry, the collection of chemical information resources also supports the related work of the following fields:
Biochemistry, Molecular & Cell Biology (biochemistry, biophysics)
Botany (plant molecular biology)
Chemical Engineering (polymers and materials science, surface science, kinetics and catalysis)
Materials Science and Engineering (materials science)
Nuclear Science and Engineering (nuclear science)
2. Collection description and guidelines
2.1 Subject definition:
Chemistry is a science that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the changes in structure and composition that matter undergoes, and the accompanying energy changes. This includes the chemical processes and phenomena of atoms, compounds, and substances including biological substances. (1)
2.2 Subject Scope:
Chemistry is a foundation science. It has several subfields and is very interdisciplinary in nature. Addendum describing the research fields of Department of Chemistry faculty provide an in depth look at the varied research a strong chemistry collection can support. Following is a basic outline of our collection development efforts in the Physical Sciences Library. Areas not listed here include Physics (QC) and Biology (QP)
Subject and major collection strengths LC classification ECS CCI Language Analytical Chemistry -- both research and support of chemical analysis and detection. Current purchases focus on new or innovating methods and instrumentation, currently used practices. Weeding of this collection is routine, but care is taken to preserve materials on historical but not currently used techniques. Cooperative collection development decision needed - microscopy QD 71 - 142
4 4 E Inorganic Chemistry --physical and chemical properties; synthesis and reactions; solution and surface chemistry; structure, molecular dynamics, and kinetics; -- of inorganic, solid state, superconductors, organometallic, and coordination compounds QD 146 - 197
4 4 E Organic Chemistry -- physical and chemical properties; design, synthesis, isolation; and reactions; structure, molecular mechanics, kinetics; -- of organic and bioorganic compounds QD 241- 341
QD 390 - 406
4 4 E Bioorganic Chemistry -- design, synthesis, and isolation; chemical communications or biologically active compounds; structure and interaction -- peptides, nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, and terpenes. Special interest - chemical basis for the origins of life Exclusions -- Antibiotics, Gums, Resins QD 415-416
QD 431 - 436
4 4 E Physical Chemistry and Theoretical Chemistry -- includes all areas of quantum chemistry, stereochemistry, chemical reactions, surface chemistry, electrochemistry and photochemistry. Less intensely collected are radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, and solution chemistry. QD 450 - 731 4 4 E Crystallography - including crystallographic data on all classes of compounds and materials as well as analytical and research use of crystallographic instrumentation. QD 901-999 4 4 E Thermodynamics - 4 4 E Polymers - Engineering and Physical Sciences share collection responsibility in this area. - 4 4 E Materials Science - Engineering and Physical Sciences share collection responsibility in this area. - 4 4 E
2.3 Specialized information needs and types of material:
Scholarly journals on all facets of chemistry as well as journals in related areas (biochemistry, physics, computation) are the most heavily used part of our collection. Compendiums, collections, and databases of physical properties of compounds and materials are of equal importance both as a foundation for intensive research in the chemical sciences as a tool to aid non-chemical researchers in their use of materials. These materials are received on standing order and must also be individually collected. Non-journal serial publications are also important but do not a predominate in this field. Most are received through the approval plan.
Monographs on all areas of chemistry are collected exhaustively. Undergraduate textbooks, as used at Cornell, are represented in the collection. Graduate level text are collected extensively.
Proceedings of conferences, workshops, and schools are prolific in this area. As of 1994 these materials will be collected selectively based on use, organization, and subject matter. A separate policy on selection of proceedings is available.
Government publications are represented in our collection but routinely sought out. Appropriate agencies are monitored.
2.4 Format notes:
Physical property and synthesis information are often delivered in electronic and well as text format. This format must be investigated further.
2.5 Chronological guidelines:
Primarily current materials. Retrospective collecting is done when new research interest of faculty demand.
2.6 Geographical guidelines:
Worldwide with a focus on North American and European research
Primary collection is English. Some foreign languages are collected, mainly German, French, and Russian.
2.9 Cooperative arrangements and related collection:
Cooperative collection development must occur with Mann Library, especially in the areas of biochemistry and biophysics.
Additional cooperative development must occur with the Engineering Library in the areas of polymers and materials.
Addendum 1: Detailed subject descriptions as supplied in Chemistry Department literature with additional notes and table to clarify collection development choices.
Analytical chemistry encompasses diverse aspects of the separation, detection, identification, and qualification of atomic, molecular, and ionic species. Analytical chemistry is based on both the type of technique used and the information which needs to be gathered. Specific research in the Department of Chemistry includes
Technique or equipment Information sought Electrodes, including chemical, modified and ultramicro selective determination of metal ions
in vivo intracellular determinations
X-ray-based techniques such as EXAFS
(extended X-ray absorption fine structures)
X-ray standing waves
In situ structural studies Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance
probing atomic-level structure in disordered systems
impact of microscopic bonding patterns on alloy properties
study of semiconducting alloys
new and novel solid-state materials
mass spectrometry and computer interpretation of mass spectral data.
ion neutralization and reionization
chemistry of unusual neutral species tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry characterization of proteins and other large molecules in mixtures Ion-microscopy and ion microprobe analysis electronic devices
sub-micrometer spatial resolution elemental mapping
A collection for analytical chemistry must also support routine analytical methods used by researchers in all fields. Areas of high interest include chromatography (liquid, HPLC, ion and gas), spectroscopy (atomic absorption, infrared, ultraviolet, nmr, esr, mass, x-ray crystallography, x-ray diffraction, emission, and others), traditional wet chemical methods (both in support of undergraduate laboratories and analytical use), and thermal methods of analysis.
Inorganic Chemistry Modern inorganic chemistry is an extremely broad discipline, reflected by the wide research interests of Cornell's inorganic chemistry faculty. Solution studies of coordination compounds and organometallics, including both transition metal and main group species, are complemented by investigations of solid-state materials. Within each subdiscipline, theoretical studies assess the structure and dynamics of molecular and extended compounds. Programs in inorganic synthesis are directed toward the preparation and characterization of new compounds possessing unusual structures and intriguing reactivity. Kinetic, structural, and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of aggregated Li-alkyls, alkoxides, and amides seek to understand their solution chemistry in organic synthesis. Spectroscopic studies of metal chelate compounds probe the relationship between structure and stereochemical nonrigidity. Redox active homo and hetero multimetallic one-dimensional transition metal complexes based on bridging ligands that provide extensive metal/metal interactions are being synthesized and characterized. Research on solid-state inorganic materials involves the study of novel low-dimensional compounds, and the preparation of ceramic materials possessing desirable physical and electronic properties. New oxides and nitrides, physically similar to high-temperature superconductors, are being prepared through conventional methods and via low-temperature solution techniques, using inorganic and organometallic precursors. Thermal and sol-gel procedures are being developed to make thin films and coatings. In order to support the varied research in this area basic materials on the properties, history, and synthesis of inorganic compounds must be maintained.
Organic Chemistry The broadest definition of organic chemistry is the study of any substance or material that contains carbon. Even a casual glance at recent scientific literature reveals the exciting new developments in organic chemistry, both in the properties of new organic materials and the molecular structures and mechanisms of life processes. Cornell is at the forefront of research in organic chemistry. Current projects include design and synthesis of organic materials with previously unavailable properties such as nonlinear optical responses; study of the repair mechanism of DNA; and investigation of the probable chemical processes involved in the beginning of life on Earth. The intimate details of enzyme action are being probed through design and synthesis of substrate analogues and by X-ray diffraction studies on crystalline enzyme-substrate complexes. The chemical language of insect communication is being decoded. Aspects of Newtonian mechanics at a molecular level are being explored through joint application of theory and experiment. Molecules designed to probe the limits of current theories of bonding and physical properties are being synthesized and evaluated.
In order to support this type a research a strong collection is needed in the area's of organic synthesis and properties of organic compounds.
Bioorganic Chemistry Bioorganic chemistry involves a wide range of interdisciplinary research efforts aimed at the study of unusual enzymatic reactions and biologically important molecules in the domain of peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, alkaloids, and terpenes. Ongoing projects address the mechanisms of several chemically interesting enzymes, the mechanism of immunosuppressive drugs and proteins, the design and synthesis of ion binding polypeptides and carbohydrates, and molecular recognition in multidomain biomolecules. The chemical basis of insect communication and of plant/insect interactions has been the subject of a long-standing collaboration with the Cornell Section of Neurobiology and Behavior. Several organic chemistry research groups maintain close ties with the Cornell Biotechnology Institute where bioorganic research extends into recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering.
Maintaining a selective biochemistry collection involves coordination with the Mann Library. The Physical Sciences Library collection focus on basic reference tools dealing with the structure and chemical aspects of proteins, nucleic acids, peptides and enzymes. We collection strongly in natural products chemistry and the chemistry of carbohydrates as they relate to research fields and organic synthesis chemistry.
Physical Chemistry Research programs in physical chemistry range from biology to physics. The biological problems under investigation focus on mechanisms of protein folding, blood clotting, enzyme catalysis and regulation, the immune response, and energy transfer in photosynthesis. Those systems can be probed experimentally by fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and fast-reaction techniques. Theoretical studies permit empirical energy calculations of protein structures. The application of lasers to the study of molecular structure and dynamics is a major area of research at Cornell. Of special interest are electronic and vibrational excitation, electron transfer in condensed media, small-molecule photodissociation, multiphoton spectroscopy, cluster dynamics, atmospheric reaction dynamics, surface chemical physics, and ultrafast timing of basic photophysical and photochemical events. Ion-beam spectroscopy has been applied to the study of ion-molecule reactions, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy has led to a new understanding of molecular dynamics, reactivity, and structure in condensed media. On-campus national facilities for synchrotron radiation and nanofabrication provide a unique opportunity for fundamental studies in a range of exciting fields.
Biophysical Chemistry Sophisticated physical and theoretical methods are applied to investigate complex biological systems on molecular and atomic levels. Computational methods are used together with a variety of experimental results (including spectroscopy, hydrodynamics, immunochemistry, and genetic engineering) to investigate protein folding and interactions between proteins and small molecules. X-ray crystallography determines the structures of a potent series of antitumor antibiotics and immunosuppressive drugs. Picosecond and femtosecond laser techniques are used to study the kinetics of electron transfer in the redox centers of peptides, proteins, and photosynthetic assemblies. Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy are used to measure structural interactions of cell surface receptors involved in immunological responses. Advanced electron spin resonance techniques are used to investigate the detailed dynamics and thermodynamics of membranes. These examples show the interdisciplinary nature of research in biophysical chemistry. Accordingly, biophysical chemistry has close ties with other departments on campus including biochemistry, pharmacology, immunology, applied physics, and plant science.
Polymer Chemistry Much effort is devoted to gaining a fundamental understanding of polymer systems from fully biological to synthetic macromolecules. Extensive experimental studies on polymer conformation of complex biomolecules such as proteins, coupled with theoretical work, provide a wealth of information on the mode of action and the properties of such macromolecules while also improving our understanding of new synthetic systems. Research in polymer synthesis seeks to design and create a broad spectrum of new polymeric materials with unique architectures or properties. These macromolecules, which may be organic or inorganic, are of great interest in emerging technologies where they may be used to solve problems in a variety of areas. New experimental techniques and sophisticated instrumentation are used to learn about phenomena occurring at polymer surfaces and interfaces, or how polymers diffuse or fracture. This knowledge, along with advances in the understanding of polymer systems, their bonding, and their dynamics, may lead to the discovery of new properties and phenomena.
Theoretical Chemistry Theoretical chemistry encompasses the study of structural and dynamical properties of molecules and molecular aggregates. Quantum chemistry, equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, and dynamics are strongly represented at Cornell. The Cornell National Supercomputer Facility provides a major resource for research in theoretical chemistry. Molecular orbital calculations applied to organic and inorganic molecules, to solids, and to surfaces are leading to the recognition of profound connections among inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, and solid-state physics. Statistical mechanical studies of phase transitions and critical phenomena are yielding a fundamental understanding of such systems as porous media, microemulsions, and polymer solutions. Investigations of energy flow within highly vibrationally excited molecules, employing techniques of classical, semi-classical, and quantum mechanics, are providing a basis for a microscopic understanding of chemical reactivity. Research into condensed phase dynamics includes development of new theoretical and computational approaches to protein folding, molecular motions in micropores, liquid crystals, and biological membranes, polymer dynamics, biomolecular electron transfer reactions, and solvent effects in electronic and vibrational spectroscopy.
The interaction between experiment and theory plays a significant role in experimental research groups. Important advances are being made in the structure and dynamics of biomolecules, simulation and interpretation of electron spin resonance line shapes, behavior of fluids in microporous media, assessment of traditional models of chemical kinetics, prediction of chemical reactivity by ab initio methods, and investigation of nonlinear optical processes.
Footnote(1) [From: McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Sciences & Technology and Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary] Return