Middle East & Islamic Studies Collection
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TITLE: Arab political dispute mediation
SN: Wayne-State-University (0254)
AB: This dissertation argues that Arab mediation is distinctive from mediation that occurs in countries in other parts of the world in terms of the likelihood of Arab countries choosing it as a method of conflict resolution, in terms of the manner or process by which it is conducted, and in terms of the outcomes of mediation. two clusters of independent variables are responsible for the distinctive nature of Arab mediation: those linked with Arab political regimes and those linked with Arab culture. This topic is important both practically and theoretically. It is of practical importance because of the geopolitical significance of the region and the high incidence of domestic and international conflict that has occurred in the region in the post-war period. Presumably, a better understanding of Arab mediation would lead to more peaceful resolution of conflict in the region. It is of theoretical significance because I will identify variables important to mediation that have generally been ignored by other scholars. These variables, as indicated above, include those linked with political regimes and those linked with culture. Previous scholarly research, such as that of Bercovitch, identifies sets of variables linked with context, process, and outcomes of mediation, but ignores other variables that arguably are as important if not more important, particularly in the Middle East. Method. Bivariate, multivariate and logistic regressions were employed in this study. Data on mediated conflicts were taken from Dr. Jacob Bercovitch Data set (1997). My approach involves the specification of hypotheses related to the processes and outcomes of mediation; and the analysis of cases to determine whether or not those cases are consistent with the hypotheses. Two units of analysis are used; namely, the dispute and mediation efforts. Two cases represent Arab-Arab disputes at the domestic level (Yemen civil war, 1962–1968), and at the regional level (Kuwait-Iraq crisis, 1958–1961). Moreover, three case studies represent Arab-non-Arab disputes at the domestic and international level. Sudan I (Addis-Ababa agreement of 1972), and Sudan II after Addis-Ababa, which is the case representing failure of mediation efforts. The last case-study (Egypt-Israel Camp David mediation effort) features the study of mediation success at the international level. All these c! ! ases are analyzed within the framework of the contingency approach to mediation success developed by Jacob Bercovitch and James Lamare (1993). They hypothesized that the outcomes of mediation efforts and disputes are contingent upon a number of contextual and process variables. The study concludes with a set of characteristics and recommendations regarding mediation in Middle Eastern disputes. SO: VOLUME 61-01A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 350 NO: AAI9954227
TITLE: Containing Arab nationalism: The United States, the Arab Middle East, and the Eisenhower Doctrine, 1956--1959
SN: Yale-University (0265)
In early 1957 U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower launched a new U.S. policy for the Middle East known informally as the Eisenhower Doctrine. The Eisenhower Doctrine was expressed in a congressional resolution declaring the intention of the United States to offer increased economic and military aid to receptive Middle Eastern countries and to protect, with U.S. armed forces if necessary, the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations from “international communism.” With this congressional mandate, the United States for the first time took the lead in defending and promoting Western interests throughout the Middle East, a role it continued to play long after the Eisenhower Doctrine itself had been abandoned. Ostensibly, the Eisenhower Doctrine aimed at protecting the Middle East from Soviet encroachment, but it also sought to contain radical Arab nationalism, which the Eisenhower administration believed to be in league with Soviet expansionism. By offering economic aid, military aid, and more explicit guarantees of American protection, the Eisenhower administration hoped to convince a majority of Arab governments to side openly with the West in the Cold War, thus isolating Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser and his regional supporters. Containing Nasserism, the administration believed, would decrease the likelihood that the oil-rich Middle East would ever fall under Soviet domination. The effort to contain Nasserism did not succeed, however, because the Eisenhower administration overestimated its own political strength in the Arab world while underestimating that of Nasserism. It was politically dangerous for Arab regimes to side with the West or to oppose Nasser, and nations taking either stand were invariably weakened. in late 1958 the United States gave up on organizing an openly pro-West coalition of Arab states and decided to seek an accommodation with Nasser. By early 1959 Nasser's relations with the Soviet Union had deteriorated, and Nasserism now seemed to be a potential barrier to, rather than an avenue of, Soviet penetration of the Middle East. The United States and Egypt enjoyed a modest rapprochement for the remainder of Eisenhower's term. SO: VOLUME 61-01A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 332 NO: AAI9954402
TITLE: THE ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN THE DEMOCRATISATION OF GLOBAL GOVERNANCE INSTITUTIONS: From ‘Soft Power’ to Collective Decision-Making?
AUTHOR: Saif Al-Islam Alqadhafi
INSTITUTION: Department of Philosophy of the London School of Economics for the degree
SUPERVISOR: Tony Giddens
A B S T R A C T
This dissertation analyses the problem of how to create more just and democratic global
governing institutions, exploring the approach of a more formal system of collective
decision-making by the three main actors in global society: governments, civil society and
the business sector. The thesis seeks to make a contribution by presenting for discussion an
addition to the system of international governance that is morally justified and potentially
practicable, referred to as ‘Collective Management’. The thesis focuses on the role of civil
society, analysing arguments for and against a role for civil society that goes beyond ‘soft
power’ to inclusion as voting members in inter-governmental decision-making structures in
the United Nations (UN) system, the Bretton Woods institutions, the World Trade
Organisation (WTO) and other institutions.The thesis defends the argument that inclusion of elected representatives of non-
governmental organisations (NGOs) in tripartite decision-making structures could
potentially create a more democratic global governing system. This conclusion is supported
by a specially-commissioned survey of leading figures in NGOs and IGO decision-making
structures. The argument is developed in a case study of the WTO.
The thesis explains and adopts three philosophical foundations in support of the argument.
The first is liberal individualism; the thesis argues that there are strong motivations for free
individuals to seek fair terms of cooperation within the necessary constraints of being
members of a global society. Drawing on the works of David Hume, John Rawls and Ned
McClennen, it elaborates significant self-interested and moral motives that prompt
individuals to seek cooperation on fair terms if they expect others to do so. Secondly, it
supports a theory of global justice, rejecting the limits of Rawls’s view of international
justice based on what he calls ‘peoples’ rather than persons. Thirdly, the thesis adopts and
applies David Held’s eight cosmopolitan principles to support the concept and specific
structures of ‘Collective Management’.
TITLE: Teaching and Learning in 18th-Century Damascus: Localism and Ottomanism in an Early Modern Arab Society
AUTHOR: Stephen Tamari
INSTITUTION: Georgetown University
SUPERVISOR: Judith Tucker and Abdul-Karim Rafeq
A B S T R A C T
This dissertation explores the roots of modern Arab history from the perspective of indigenous sources of change. Orientalist and Arab nationalist historians once saw the 18th century as a period of cultural stagnation, civil strife, and economic decline. These assumptions have been challenged by more recent social, political, and economic historians. Eighteenth-century culture has yet to receive the same kind of attention. This dissertation continues the effort to explore the vitality and complexity of the 18th century with a focus on cultural life. The specific topic of inquiry is the Ottoman educational system and those who staffed it in 18th-century Damascus. My major sources are biographical dictionaries, chronicles, and ijazas, Islamic teaching certificates, an abundant but rarely used source for this period. Four chapters form the core of the dissertation. Following two introductory chapters, Chapter 3 presents a survey of the colleges and teaching mosques that functioned during this period and concludes that the 18th-century saw a revival in local institution building. Chapter 4 is based on a quantitative assessment of the regional origins, career paths, and affiliations of Damascene teachers. My conclusions challenge the dichotomy some historians draw between localism and Ottomanism. Chapter 5 is based on the intellectual autobiography of a prominent scholar who listed more than 150 titles that he read. An analysis of the subjects covered by these books gives us a precise understanding of the substance of an Islamic intellectual career in the early modern period. The final chapter explores the rhythms of the school year, intellectual activities that took place outside the madrasas and mosques, and readings that extended beyond the canon described in the previous chapter. The routines and local pride that animate the life of a Damascene teacher counter the images of instability and fear that dominate 20th-century renditions of this period.
TITLE: Die Geschichte der Stadt Qom im Mittelalter : (650 - 1350) : politische und wirtschaftliche Aspekte
AUTHOR: Drechsler, Andreas
INSTITUTION:University of Bamberg, Germany
[Berlin : Schwarz, 1999. - 378 p. : maps (Islamkundliche Untersuchungen ; 224) Bamberg, Univ., Diss., 1996. ISBN 3-87997-276-1]
A B S T R A C T
Although it is in German, it contains an English summary (p. 368-377), has an extensive index and can be of interest for researchers occupying themselves with medieval Iranian political and economical history. The following points of the emerging historical picture of Qom can be emphasized as especially noteworthy: the period of the first cursory Arabic conquest and subsequent second seizure (sometimes violent) of the region through the descendants of the first conquerors, the urban genesis, the various tax rebellions caused by extreme tax burdens (a repeated pattern), the loss of authority of the caliphate and the incorporation into the rule of the changing dominating dynasties in Western Iran, the impoverishment under the Buyids in the lifetime of the author of the main source (the Tarikh-i Qumm), the relative urban prosperity under the Saljuqs and the slow recovery under the Ilkhanids after the Mongol slaughter. The pre-Islamic period is also shortly discussed. It can be said that Qom and its region were since long inhabitated although the importance of Qom can not have been as big as other urban centres of pre-Islamic Iran. Special consideration is given to the economical situation as described in length in the Tarikh-i Qumm. The questions of the complex taxation system, the irrigation and the cultivation are extensively treated. Also the social situation can be investigated to some extent and the topography of Qom in the tenth century can be very roughly reconstructed.
TITLE: Leather and Islam in Iberian Peninsula: cultural identity, pedagogy and heritage
AU: Franklin Pereira (email@example.com)
SN: University of Minho Braga, Portugal
M.A. Thesis project
A B S T R A C T
"Leather and Islam in Iberian Peninsula: cultural identity, pedagogy and heritage" deals with the influencies of the manufacture of leather left by the Muslim domination of the Iberian Peninsula. Several items are studied, made in the last Islamic kingdom of Granada (quiver, bag for bow, chopine, bag, box), gilt leather/guadameci work of mudejar production of the 16th century, Portuguese upholstery of the 16-17th centuries, as well as the prolonged aesthetics and uses in rural areas of the actual Iberian south. The visual elements shown in altar frontals and upholstery of the Christian elite show the high esteem paid to Iberian Islamic art, used along with the "Moorish way" of sitting on rugs and cushions, riding in the "jineta" way, and covering walls with tapestries and gilt leather/guadameci; these were fashions rooted in the Muslim heritage, and kept until early Renaissance. The lack, or inexistence, of leather artifacts dated before the 15th century makes one recall other manufactures in order to see a continuity of traditional motives and uses. Several Portuguese motives come from the initial Umayyad source, showing that leatherwork was quite important in the occident of al-Andalus; being Portugal established, geographically speaking, in mid-13th century, the ornamentation canons were kept by the new Christian elite, and moved to the leather upholstery chairs with the end of the Middle Ages. Such topics do arise doubts about the so-called "leather of Cordoba", and show that Caliphate art was extended to the whole Gharb. The study of the arts of leather, of folk or elitist uses, add more value to a heritage involved in the creation of local and national cultural identity. This is to pass on to future generations, using it as a pedagogical tool in the classroom.
TITLE: Places like home: Islam, matriliny, and the history of family in Minangkabau
SN: Cornell-University (0058)
This dissertation is a history of the changing definitions of intimacy, gender and family relationships, and home among the Minangkabau, the world's largest matrilineal Muslim society. In it I analyze local interpretations and negotiations of identity and Islam in a setting that is often seen as the periphery of the Ummat Islam (Islamic World), making use of sources overlooked by Dutch colonizers and other scholars.
TITLE: Revolution or revelation: A Gramscian approach to the rise of political Islam in Palestine
SN: University-of-Alberta-Canada (0351)
The phenomenon of ‘Political Islam’ has increased in both scope and importance over the past two decades. Beginning with the revolution in Iran, its impact in the Middle East and the international theatre have made it potentially the most destabilizing development in the region. It is because of these circumstances that the phenomenon of political Islam, while eliciting a very strong response in a number of Western capitals, remains, for the most part, greatly misunderstood, as the West continues to assume a uniformly aggressive stance against all these movements, regardless of their professed aims. This dissertation has sought to deconstruct some of the myths and biases that surround the expansion of political Islam. In examining this phenomenon through a Gramscian framework, the aim is to present primarily indigineous movements specific to a certain region through Western concepts and terminology, and in the process, make it more easily understandable to Western audiences. Thus, the alien nature and discourse of the Islamist movements should not confuse the fact that these movements, are most specially political movements, which originated in response to a universal phenomenon of modernization epitomized by relative material disadvantage and a closed political system. This study first conceptualizes the phenomenon of political Islam in both its theoretical (political doctrine) and practical (bases of social support) forms. After presenting the specifics of the Gramscian theoretical framework, the theory is then applied to both Muhammad and the current case of Palestine (e.g., Hamas and the Muslim Brotherhood) to demonstrate the underlying link within political Islam from the time of jahiliyyah to the present. In this sense, the conclusion reached is that a Gramscian framework provides a distinct interpretation of a complicated phenomenon and is a more appropriate method through which to examine political Islam. SO: VOLUME 61-03A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 1141 NO: AAINQ46813
TITLE: Preparing for encounter: Helping a congregation grow in faith via the exploration of Islam and the study of Abraham in the Bible and Qur'an as a step toward interfaith dialogue
SN: Hartford-Seminary (0083)
This dissertation examines the effects a study of Islam brought to bear on the beliefs and attitudes of one group of church members. Was it detrimental to their Christian faith to engage in such a study? Can examining another religion provide more than just information about that faith? Can this type of study be undertaken in a way that not only avoids the pitfalls of exclusivist, inclusivist and pluralist approaches to interfaith interaction, but also allows each faith to bear witness to their core monotheistic concepts?
On the way to answering these questions, this paper analyzes the dynamics of historic Christian/Muslim relations, aware of the antagonisms present when Christians and Muslims approach one another in today's world. The figure of Abraham/Ibrahim is held up as an illustrative point illumining each faith's self-understanding: to Christians a patriarch whose flaws are overcome by the quality of his faith in God, to Muslims a prophet who presents a pattern of obedience for all to follow. While a more central figure for Islam than for Christianity (he is credited with establishing, along with his son Ishmael/Isma'il) the ritual of worship at the pilgrimage point of Makkah), Abraham is significant to Christians, yet not so central that his mention is contentious as an interfaith meeting ground. SO: VOLUME 61-02A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 643 NO: AAI9961722
TITLE: Samuel Zwemer: A model of Muslim contextualization
SN: Mid-America-Baptist-Theological-Seminary (0818)
This dissertation describes the model of contextualization that Samuel Zwemer employed. It traces his theological and missiological development from childhood to his later ministry at Princeton Seminary. Specifically, his methodology is examined. The dissertation is divided into six chapters. The first chapter is the Introduction to the study. It includes the purpose, the importance, the sources, and the organization of the dissertation. Chapter two considers “Samuel Zwemer and His Islamic Context.” This chapter divides into two sections. The first section reviews his life and ministry. The second section addresses the Islamic context with which Zwemer dealt. Zwemer's Model of Muslim Contextualization” is chapter three. His model emphasized six aspects: rejection of the traditional approach, anthropological sensitivity, Christocentric message, personal evangelism, points of contact, and touching the needs of the people. A summary of his model concludes this chapter. Chapter four is “Zwemer's Model versus Its Challenges.” Zwemer faced challenges to his model from Islam and theologians of his day. The way in which Zwemer negotiated these challenges is examined. Chapter five, “Samuel Zwemer and the Issues of Muslim Contextualization Today,” examines Zwemer's impact on Muslim contextualization. The definition, the origin, and the history of contextualization as a term provides justification for using the term to characterize Zwemer's methodology. The divergent streams of research into which contextualization has taken scholarship are discussed. The final four sections of the chapter address models and examples of Muslim contextualization, especially rejection of Muslim contextualization, uncritical contextualization, and critical contextualization. Any information that Zwemer has contributed to the current discussions are brought to light. The chapter closes by exposing some controversial examples of Muslim contextualization. The final chapter is the Conclusion. The Conclusion portrays Zwemer as the unparalleled figure in the history of Muslim evangelism. He changed the shape of Muslim evangelism almost singlehandedly. He placed great emphasis on knowing the culture of the Muslim whom he sought to reach and on using the culture to provide points of contact from which to bridge into the Gospel. Zwemer's methodology is shown to provide the foundation for Muslim contextualization today. SO: VOLUME 61-02A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 649 NO: AAI9962656
TITLE: The development of the translation movement (Islam)
SN: McGill-University-Canada (0781)
AB: The development of the translation movement in Islamic history was a long, intricate movement which encompassed a large number of people over a long period of time. It is the objective of this paper to assess the historical setting which gave rise to this movement as well as to evaluate why it was embraced. Moving onward, the paper will then move to a more detailed examination of six translators, in an effort to evaluate their contribution to the movement. While doing this, an inventory will be conducted of the works which were translated in the three disciplines of astrology, philosophy, and medicine by these translators in an attempt to answer the question of why the selection process was so specific and what perhaps were the criteria for these choices. SO: VOLUME 38-03 OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 555 NO: AAIMQ43922
TITLE: Reconciliatory Servant Evangelism: The accommodation of Islam into the traditionally Judeo-Christian military community of the United States Navy
SN: Regent-University (1058)
In the pluralistic environment of the United States Navy, a new neighbor, Islam, has appeared within the community—a faith group that had traditionally been on the periphery of the military society as a silent unobtrusive member. In the past, the number of Muslims in the United States Navy were so insignificant that facilitation for religious rights were minimal. In today's military the number of Muslims continues to grow at a rate commensurate with that of the civilian population. Chapter One discusses this arrival of neighbors, who are not from a Judeo-Christian background, and has necessitated the addition of Imam Chaplains within the military setting. The question that rushed to the forefront was, “How do we accommodate this ‘new’ faith group and open doors instead of building walls or starting wars?” In a setting that is governed by a Constitution that guarantees religious rights and does not allow proselytizing, “How do Muslims an! ! d the Christians stay true to their own faith that calls them to witness, and at the same time be an honest, true and sincerely loving neighbor?” This dissertation is an effort to answer that question with a very practical solution—a solution that calls for a returning to the early church method of carrying the Gospel to our neighbor and being true to Christ's command to evangelize the world. Mass evangelism has not worked with Islam as is apparent within the 10–40 window. Therefore, I contend that “Reconciliatory Servant Evangelism” must be the prime methodology for reaching the lost in the twenty-first century. This methodology is based on the concepts of repentance, reconciliation, and being a servant who is dedicated to peaceful co-existence (Matthew 22:38–40). A five-modular workshop (History, Beliefs, Culture, Islam in America, and Reconciliatory Servant Evangelism) was developed to provide military personnel with the tools they could use to understand Islam and become a good neighbor—a neighbor who does not make his friendship contingent upon the other ever accepting his witness. However, it does provide those individuals, who are of the Christian faith, an opportunity to be true to their mandate to share the Gospel of Christ in a non-offensive manner. The fifth module can be modified to be utilized in a secular (non-religious) setting by isolating the concepts of Servant Reconciliation and being a good neighbor. Chapter Two presents a survey of the major texts that were instrumental in developing the Islam workshop. Chapter Three provides the theological basis for the workshop, with Chapter Four furnishing an overall description of the project. Chapter Five is a definitive description of the workshop outcome and its strengths and weaknesses. It also presents creative ideas of expanding the use and audience of the Islam workshop. SO: VOLUME 61-02A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 642 NO: AAI9961482
TITLE: An Arabic creole
in Africa: the Nubi language of Uganda
AUTHOR: I.H.W. Wellens
INSTITUTION: University of Nijmegen, Department of Arabic and Islam Studies (KUN)
DATE: 08/1997 - 07/2001
Linguistic Field:Education and training -- language and literature studies of other language groups
SUPERVISOR: Prof.dr. M.A. Woidich
A B S T R A C T
Nubi Arabic is a creolized variety of Arabic, spoken in Uganda and Kenya by appr. 50,000 speakers, one of the few documented examples of a creole language with a non-Indo-European basis. Nubi Arabic developed from a pidginized variety of Arabic, which originated in the 19th century in the camps of the Egyptian army in Upper Egypt and the Sudan. This pidgin Arabic was brought to Uganda and Kenya where it underwent a process of creolization. The present project has two major aims. In the first place an analysis of the structure of Nubi Arabic is given on the basis of a text corpus collected during fieldwork in Uganda. In the second place the historical development of the language is reconstructed on the basis of the available sources on the history of Egypt and the Sudan. The results will contribute towards the knowledge of the use of Arabic in sub-Saharan Africa. The study of the creolization of Nubi Arabic will also provide material for a comparison with other instances of pidgin and creole languages and thus contribute towards general theories of pidginization and creolization.
TITLE: A Contrastive Study of Middle and Inchoative
Alternations in Arabic and English
AUTHOR: Abduljawad T. Mahmoud
INSTITUTION: University of Pittsburgh Department of General
Linguistic Field:Syntax, Semantics, Morphology, Lexicography [Subject Language: English, Arabic, Standard]
SUPERVISOR: Dissertation Director 1: Lori Levin Dissertation Director 2: Sarah Thomason Dissertation Director 3: Richmond Thomason
A B S T R A C T
This study presents a detailed analysis of the semantic, syntactic and morphological features of the middle and inchoative (unaccusative) alternations in Arabic and English. The issue of the middle/ unaccusative contrast and the question of whether middles constitute a semantically and syntactically uniform class are also addressed. On the basis of this analysis, a new typology of the middle and unaccusative verbs in the two languages has been proposed. In addition to the semantic properties and the syntactic behavior of these verbs, this typology is conditioned by some contextual and pragmatic factors. The following are the main conclusions of this study: (i) Given the class of the unmarked unaccusatives and the class of the morphological intransitives, the morphological condition for the formation of Arabic unaccusatives is neither necessary nor sufficient. (ii) Unlike English, Arabic does not have semantic or syntactic restrictions analogous to those that distinguish the English middles from unaccusatives. (iii) The English verbs known un the literature as middles do not constitute a semantically or syntactically uniform class. (iv) Despite the fact that Arabic and English are typologically different and genetically unrelated, the two languages exhibit significant similarities with respect to the semantic and syntactic properties of the middle and unaccusative alternations.
Institution: University of Essex
Program: PhD Linguistics
Dissertation Status: Completed
Degree Date: 2009
Author: Chryso Hadjidemetriou
Dissertation Title: The Consequences of Language Contact: Armenian and Maronite
Arabic in contact with Cypriot Greek
Linguistic Field(s): Sociolinguistics
Enam Al Wer
The linguistic situation in Cyprus has drawn the attention of many
linguists who have mainly focused on the Cypriot Greek variety spoken in
the government-controlled area of the Island. It has been reported in the
past that little was known about the situation of the Armenian and
Arabic-speaking communities of Cyprus (Karyolemou and Goutsos 2004). This
study reports the consequences of contact between Armenian and Cypriot
Greek (CG) and Kormakiti Maronite Arabic (KMA) and CG.
The study is based on empirical data collected through interviews and a
written test. 41 Armenians and 48 Maronites were recorded; 5 Greek-Cypriot
monolinguals were also recorded as a control group; additionally, 45
elementary school Armenian pupils participated in a written test, and 21
monolingual Cypriot Greek pupils were included as a control group. The
analysis included 15 phonological features, and three morphosyntactic
features. The phonological results with respect to the contact with KMA
show that KMA speakers alternated between [X] and [x] in CG. The use of [X]
was found in bilingual KMA and CG speakers. Transfer from KMA is claimed to
be the reason of the appearance of this feature.
The phonological results regarding contact with Armenian show that the
Armenian speakers have a tendency to change the manner of articulation of
particular sounds in their CG (i.e [d] or [t] for [D], [t] for [T], [g] or
[k] for /?/, and /k/ for /x/). Also, it was observed that there is a
tendency to adopt more standard features in their CG (i.e. when the choice
of selecting between dialectal doublets is present, they chose the more
When examining speech rate and pauses, the results showed the Maronites and
the Greek Cypriots produced fewer pauses and faster speech rate results
than the Armenian. When examining morphosyntactic features in the CG of the
Armenians, the Armenians did not use the definite article in environments
where the article is obligatory. Armenian children also produced more
definite article deviations than the monolingual Cypriot Greek children.
The examination of the assignment of grammatical gender in the Armenians'
CG showed that the Armenians produced grammatical gender deviations. It was
found that both groups showed a tendency to assign the neuter gender in
masculine and feminine nouns. Similar results were noted when Armenian
children were tested.
The analysis of case and number assignment in the CG of the Armenians found
deviations in this area to be uncommon in comparison with the definite
article and grammatical gender assignment deviations.
TITLE: Corpus study of tense, aspect, and modality in diglossic speech in Cairene Arabic
INSTITUTION:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Dissertation URL: https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/31159
DIRECTOR: Elabbas Benmamoun
A B S T R A C T
Morpho-syntactic features of Modern Standard Arabic mix intricately with those of Egyptian Colloquial Arabic in ordinary speech. I study the lexical, phonological and syntactic features of verb phrase morphemes and constituents in different tenses, aspects, moods. A corpus of over 3000 phrases was collected from religious, political/economic and sports interviews on four Egyptian satellite TV channels. The computational analysis of the data shows that systematic and content morphemes from both varieties of Arabic combine in principled ways. Syntactic considerations play a critical role with regard to the frequency and direction of code-switching between the negative marker, subject, or complement on one hand and the verb on the other. Morph-syntactic constraints regulate different types of discourse but more formal topics may exhibit more mixing between Colloquial aspect or future markers and Standard verbs.
Khaled Hussein Abu Amsha
Prof. Abdurrahman Abd Ali Al-Hashemi
This study aimed at diagnosing the difficulties of Building Arabic sentences by non-native learners of Arabic in the universities of Jordan and their Remediation in the light of modern linguistic theory.
This study intends to answer the following questions:
1. What are the difficulties that non-native learners of Arabic
face when they build Arabic sentences according to their level of learning (beginners, intermediate, advanced)?
2. Do the difficulties in building Arabic sentences differ among
the non native learners of Arabic according to their gender, nationality, age and the type of university (public or private)?
3. What are the suggested treatments for the difficulties that non-
native learners of Arabic face when they learn the structure of the Arabic sentences in light of modern linguistic theory?
To answer these questions, the researcher intentionally chose two study locations. From each location he acquired the participation of three levels of learning (beginners, intermediate and advanced). On average, two sections were chosen from each of the three levels. The study included interviews with six teachers of Arabic for non-native speakers and twelve students who were learning Arabic as a foreign language in addition to analyzing twenty documents that were handed back from students and their teachers.
The study applied first-hand, qualitative research for the collection of reports that were connected with the difficulties non-native students of Arabic face. This was done by means of observation, interviewing and analyzing documents in accordance with the threefold strategy. The researcher prepared a model which included the points in question The study focused on the difficulties of sentence structure for non- native students. The researcher was able to support his qualitative results with some quantitative ones especially the role of the sex, nationality, age and type of university variables.
The results of the study came up with a clear diagnosis of the difficulties which non-native students of Arabic face in the three levels of their learning beginners, intermediates, advanced in accordance with frequency and popularity of these levels.
The study also revealed the role of the gender, nationality, age and type of group variables regarding the kinds of difficulties which non- native students face, because the results showed an advantage of females over males and that the difficulties for younger students were limited in comparison of those for older students.
The results also showed that there were fewer difficulties for students who had contact with the Arabic language, its people, and its culture. Additionally, the difficulties faced by students in public and private universities were found to be similar.
This study puts forth a number of possible solutions based upon modern linguistic theories presented by the researcher.
In light of these results, the study concluded with a few recommendations. Amongst them: it was recommended to apply the same methodology used by the researcher in his study of the means by which the problems faced by non-native speakers of Arabic in their study of sentence structure are overcome. Additionally, the researcher recommends the establishment of appropriate curricula for students studying Arabic. These curricula should make proper use of modern linguistic theories in order to teach Arabic for both general and specific purposes. Finally, the researcher recommends further research in the field in order to diagnose the challenges that face non-native speakers of Arabic in their study of letters, words, and sentence structure.
TITLE: Egyptian Romanized Arabic: A Study of Selected Features from Communication Among Egyptian Youth on
Facebook / Jan Arild Bjørnsson (Thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in the field of Arabic language (60 credits)
UNIVERSITY OF OSLO, November 2010
Institution: University of Durham
Completed Degree Date: 2012
Author: Gaber Gaber
Dissertation URL: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/3511/
This work presents a full and unified investigation of the phenomenon of non-concatenative nominal morphology in Libyan Arabic (LA), with special reference to the formation of the broken plural (BP). The analysis provides a morphophonological account of morphologically derived words in LA. It is based on two main ideas: the first is specifying the input for the derivational morphological process which represents the underlying structure of the derived word; the second is to account for the phonological constraints which interact with each other on the underlying structure in order to determine the optimal output for the derived word.
In contrast to previous studies which fail to recognize derivational morphological processes and consequently cannot identify the nature of the input of the derived word, this thesis identifies the input as the starting point to justify the resulting derived output.
This thesis argues that the nature of the input in non-concatenative morphology must be accounted for first. The morphological process starts when elements of the input which are carried over to the output are identified, and the specified derivational morphemes are supplied. These together form the underlying structure of any derived word. The underlying structure of the derived word in this thesis is considered to be the string of root consonants and any morphological component associated with the input, plus the derivational morphemes of the intended morphological process. As a consequence of identifying the nature of the input, the template which has been associated with Arabic language, is revealed in this thesis that it is not a primitive but rather it is an artefact of the phonology operating on morphological products. Thus, phonology has no role in the underlying structure, but comes into play to repair any ill-formed surfaced structure. The types of constraints which operate on the outputs are phonological constraints concerning markedness and faithfulness constraints. The function of markedness constraints is to maintain the well-formedness of the output, while the function of faithfulness constraints is to preserve the morphological identity of the components of the underlying structure.
TITLE: News on the Web in Arabic and English: A discourse analysis of CNN's websites
Institution: University of Vienna
Dissertation Status: Completed
Degree Date: 2010
Linguistic Field(s): Discourse Analysis
Subject Language(s): Arabic, Standard (arb)
A B S T R A C T
This research consists of an analysis of the news presented by the CNN (Cable News Network) on its websites in Arabic and English. It is based on the hypothesis that the CNN as a news producer modifies the news content and presentation according to the audience it addresses. It is also assumed that, as the Web has actually become an important source of news, distinctive features of form and content are used, making web-news different from other traditional types of news and requiring different analytical tools. The research is interdisciplinary in nature. It is based mainly in the field of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), with insights from other disciplines, such as multimodal discourse analysis, functional linguistics and translation studies. The analysed data consisted of stories collected from both sites in Arabic and English during a one-month period, as well as a users' questionnaire distributed and collected online. For the purpose of triangulation, the analysis included multimodal, quantitative and qualitative analyses of the collected websites stories and the questionnaire data. The research concludes that the Web has become a major news source for many people; the written material is more dominant compared to other multimodal elements; the websites in question address each public using a completely different discourse, i.e. using texts with different linguistic, cultural and ideological implications; and that negative views are widespread concerning CNN's reporting, reliability and balance. It also emerges that news translation is rather a process of re-writing, providing totally new products depending on different ideological positions.
Translation studies tools are not adequately designed for analysing this type of text production and discourse analysis scholars have concentrated more on monolingual texts than on cross-linguistic discourse. It is therefore considered desirable and advisable to conduct further research that looks into these questions and to develop a contrastive critical discourse analysis approach for investigating them.
TITLE: AN OUTLINE OF THE SHILHA (BERBER) VERNACULAR OF
DOUIRET (SOUTHERN TUNISIA)
AUTHOR: Dr Zouhir Gabsi
INSTITUTION: University of Western Sydney, Australia
Linguistic Field: Language Description
A B S T R A C T
The Tunisian Berber (or Shilha) vernaculars are among the least described Afroasiatic (Hamito-Semitic) languages to this day. Although they have been provisionally assigned to the 'North-Berber' group within the Berber branch of Afroasiatic, their immediate affiliation remains an open question. The principal task of the present work will be to describe the phonology, morphology and syntax of Douiret. Less central to the aims of the study is the analysis of the basic wordstores of the three surviving Shilha varieties which include Douiret, Chninni (or Chenini) and Ouirsighen (Jerba).
The Shilha variety of Douiret is chosen for this study because it still retains some fundamental elements of Berber structure which are not very dissimilar to other Berber 'languages' such as Kabyle and Tamazight. The present study shows that Tunisian Berber still survives today, but its future remains uncertain in the face of the forces of urbanisation, economic migration and lack of government support all of which may contribute hypothetically to its likely death.
This study will be pursued with reference to the social and cultural context of the Tunisian Berber vernaculars. Research on the nature of language contact between Tunisian Arabic and Shilha is practically non-existent and will be a secondary concern of this study. The strong influence of the local Arabic superstratum on Shilha in phonology, morphology, syntax and lexis will also be investigated, as well as the presence of Berber elements in the distinctive Arabic dialect of Tunisia.
Finally, as the thesis title suggests, the present study should not be taken as the last word on Berber in Tunisia. The little available data on Berber in Tunisia makes the task harder in establishing a clear picture of its structure and relationship with other Berber languages such as Kabyle and Tamazight.
TITLE: A Reference Grammar of Kunuz Nubian
AUTHOR: Ahmed Sokarno Abdel-Hafiz
INSTITUTION: State University of New York at Buffalo
Linguistic Field: Language Description
SUPERVISOR: : Donna B. Gerdts Dissertation Director 2: Joan L. Bybee Dissertation Director 3: Madeline Mathiot
A B S T R A C T
This is a grammar of Kunuz Nubian (KN), an Eastern Sudanic language spoken in Southern Egypt. It is the first grammar ever written on this language. The areas covered in the study are phonology, morphology and syntax. The chapter on phonology introduces KN phonemic inventory which is followed by the description of the syllable structure, stress, phonetactics and phonological rules. The chapter on morphology shows that the morphemes that participate in the composition of KN word classes are classified into conceptual categories. These categories are further divided into two types: derivational and inflectional. The chapter on KN syntax starts with basic facts such as word order, verb agreement and reflexives. The types of constructions discussed include morphosyntactic rules, complementations and subordinates. The grammar also includes two texts and a word list of KN.
Zaki, M. (2011). The Semantics and Pragmatics of Demonstratives in English and Arabic. PhD Dissertation. Middlesex University.
This research investigates the semantics and pragmatics of demonstratives in two languages, English and Arabic, within the framework of relevance theory. The study applies the fundamental distinction between ‘conceptual’
and ‘procedural’ semantics in an attempt to account for the various instantiations of such referring expressions in the two languages. I argue that demonstratives play a crucial role in aligning the discourse models of the speaker and hearer by encoding procedural semantics instructing the hearer to maintain or create a joint level of attention to the intended referent as opposed to other referential candidates. Following Diessel (2006), I take it that this notion of joint attention subsumes all the cognitive and functional roles played by demonstratives in discourse. I also argue that demonstratives encode a (pro)concept of distance which falls under the scope of the attention-directing procedure, thus creating the internal contrast between the intended referent and other candidate referents. Within this proposal, I discuss how demonstratives can contribute to both the explicit and the implicit levels of meaning by virtue of the interaction between their encoded semantics and the context in a relevance-driven framework. Compared to other referring expressions or no referring expression at all, the role of a demonstrative achieves relevance on the implicit level. It can either highlight a certain aspect of the referent, or encourage the creation of weak implicatures, or signal a certain cognitive/emotional attitude towards the referent. The study is supported by an analysis of corpus data from both languages in order to supplement theoretical proposals with attested evidence.
I further extend my analysis to include two areas. First, I discuss cases of self-repair in spoken English discourse which involves the definite article and demonstratives. By linking the notion of self-repair to that of optimal relevance, I shed some light on the semantic and pragmatic differences between these two referring expressions. Second, I extend my analysis to include other forms of demonstratives in Arabic and explore their semantic and pragmatic behaviour in discourse. I propose a procedural account for the three forms attentional *haa*, *kadhaalik* and *haakadhaa,*arguing that their contribution goes well beyond that of mere demonstrative reference to that of being discourse markers encoding procedural constraints on interpretation. I also investigate some alternative syntactic structures where demonstratives occur, arguing that the stylistic effect of emphasis which they give rise to can be explained in terms of relevant cognitive effects.
TITLE: Syntax of Jibbali
AUTHOR: Antje Ida Hofstede
INSTITUTION: University of Manchester (UK)
SUPERVISOR: G. Rex Smith
A B S T R A C T
In this Ph.D. thesis, a synchronic study of the syntax of Jibbali is presented. Jibbali is a Modern South Arabian language which is spoken in Dhofar (in the south of the Sultanate of Oman) by about 50,000 persons. The study is mainly based on unpublished texts collected by the late Professor T.M. Johnstone around 1970. Where appropriate, examples from T.M. Johnstone's Jibbali Lexicon (Oxford 1981) and additional fieldwork have been added. Besides the syntax, some aspects concerning the morphology are also treated. The presentation of the data is of a descriptive nature with sometimes a functional approach. Chapter 1 contains information related to the language: its geographical location and the speakers, its classification, the various names, and previous research. Finally, some remarks regarding the corpus and the transcription are made. The description of the syntax and some morphological aspects are presented in Chapters 2-11. In Chapters 2-4 the various parts of the clause are discussed: the noun phrase (Chapter 2), the relative clause (Chapter 3), the prepositional and adverbial phrase (Chapter 4). In Chapters 5-9 the whole clause is treated. Firstly, simple clauses are discussed: the non-verbal clause (Chapter 5), the simple verbal clause (Chapter 6), and two aspects related to the simple clause: the comparative and interrogative, which can both be expressed by either a non-verbal or a verbal clause (Chapters 7 and 8). Then the complex clause is discussed (Chapter 9). Chapters 10 and 11 treat aspects related to both simple and complex clauses: the tense, aspect and modality in clauses (Chapter 10), and the negative (Chapter 11). The final chapter (Chapter 12) gives some concluding remarks. In the appendices, a map shows the approximate area where Jibbali and the other Modern South Arabian languages are spoken. Three Jibbali texts are added as examples, which are glossed and furnished with a translation into English. Finally, the thesis contains references to the articles and books used in compiling the thesis, together with a selected bibliography on Jibbali, and the curriculum vitae of the author.
TITLE: Some Cognitively Controlled Coarticulatory Effects in Arabic and English, with Particular Reference to Voice Onset Time
INSTITUTION: University of Essex Program: Phonetics
Dissertation Status: Completed Degree Date: 1996
AUTHOR: Mohammad Maher Jesry
Linguistic Field: Phonetics
Subject Language: English, Arabic,Standard
Dissertation Director 1: Mark Tatham
A B S T R A C T
This study introduces one possible link needed to bridge the gap between phonology and phonetics which have been noticed to lack a cognitive component that takes account of phonological aspects that are phonetically dominated. Traditionally, and on the one hand, phonology is thought to represent and include all cognitive processes involved in speech production. Whereas, on the other hand, phonetics is thought to represent the 'physical' processes. In other words, phonological assignments are simply thought to be realised automatically without adding any further properties to any particular segment.
But as there is clear evidence, from cross-language studies, that at the phonetic level, there is systematic variation of actualisation which cannot be attributed to the usual type of phonological processes, a cognitive ('supervisory') factor has been suggested to be added to the process at a lower level and folowing phonology. Because this supervisory factor has 'knowledge' about the system limitation and constraints, it provides a means of organising and controlling, to some extent, voluntrarily, the manipulation of these physical constraints inherent in the phonetic mechanism, according to different linguistic requirements.
One consequence of incorporating this supervisory factor of component is that, now, although a phenomenon like the occurrence of the delayed onset of voice - or what is known as Voice Onset Time (VOT) - following initial voiceless plosives describes automatic and involuntary coarticulatory effect, it indicates the presence of a decision taken for the purpose of linguistics. This result has been reached on account of the occurrence of several 'zones' of VOT in some languages in contrast to others with two zones. If that coarticulatory effect were automatic, then it would be the same for all languages.
In addition, through the supervisory factor, the congnitive and physical aspects interact with each other in a way that reflects the importance of the communicative function of speech production. This role has been highlighted in the way physical limilts, physiological economy constraints, and 'pronounceability' relate to each other to end up striking a balance between articulatory simplification on the part of the speech producer, and active listening on the part of the perceiver.
TITLE: "A Study of the "ghous" in Morocco"
Author: Nasser Berjaoui
Institution: Chouaib Doukkali University
Completed Degree Date: 1999
Dissertation URL: http://www.geocities.com/nasserberjaoui2002/academic_degrees.htm
Dissertation Director 1: Dominique Caubet Dissertation
Director 2: Fatima Sadiqi
Dissertation Director 3: Jilali Saib Dissertation
Director 4: Moha Ennaji
A B S T R A C T
This dissertation, fully based on an extensive fieldwork of eight years, presents the rules of the Moroccan Arabic 'ghous' (a Secret Language) of the Tafilalet (South-east of Morocco) in four parts. The first part shows that the Tafilalet 'ghous' comprises four multi-faceted types, namely the Substitution-Pseudo-Suffixation, the Substitution, the Restructuration and the Inversion types, and that the variables of localization, communities, age and sex characterize each type. The second part discusses the rules in the encoding of prefixless, prefixed and negated words in the four types of the Tafilalet 'ghous'. The Substitution-Pseudo-Suffixation 'ghous' works through the replacement of the opening consonant of the word by the consonant of the 'ghous' and by the hosting of the replaced opening consonant in a disguise element that is pseudo-suffixed to the word. The Substitution 'ghous' functions through the simple replacement of the first consonant of the word by a consonant of the varieties of this family. The Restructuration type is based on the deletion of the vowels of the word and on the restructuration of the remaining consonants in terms of four distinct patterns, namely the L-CUCI FUCI/L-CUCeC FUCeC, the MeTT-CACCI TRISA/TIFeRKUSIN, the MeTT-CACCI, and the Te-CCICI WICI/Te-CCICeC WICeC. The Inversion type operates by the postposing of given items in the word. The second issue that is analysed in the second part in this study is related to the encoding, in the four types of the Tafilalet 'ghous', of examples that are preceded by the negational element 'ma' and/or prefixes. In the Substitution-Pseudo-Suffixation and the Substitution 'ghous', it is the opening consonant of the word root that is substituted. In the Restructuration 'ghous', each sub-type encodes the parts of speech in question in several different and flexible ways. In the Inversion type, any elements that may precede or follow the word are taken as part of it and are encoded accordingly. The third part shows the encoding of long parts of speech, short parts of speech (usually one-consonantals) and lengthened parts of speech (lengthened one-consonantals). Long parts of speech are optionally encoded in the Substitution-Pseudo-Suffixation as well as the Substitution 'ghous'. The Restructuration 'ghous' encodes these parts of speech in several ways. The Inversion type operates through the encoding of these either as separate parts of speech or as part of the word they precede. The third part analyses the syntactic structure of the encoded phrases, clauses and sentences in the Tafilalet 'ghous'. In the Substitution-Pseudo-Suffixation, the Substitution and the Restructuration 'ghous', the structures of all the forms in question are not affected in the encoding. In the Inversion 'ghous, however, all the sentence, the clause and the phrase structures -with the exception of nominal and prepositional phrases- remain unchanged. In the former case, the definite article no longer precedes the noun, and in the latter, the preposition follows the noun. In the latter cases, the encoding operation affects the entire phrase and not the word. The fourth part presents a very limited extract of the fieldwork, self-recorded, conversational and multi-functional corpora and shows the substantial use of the 'ghous' words, sentences and entire every-day verbal exchanges.
TITLE:The Case of Rhyme v. Rwason: Ibn al-Rumi and his
Poetics in Context
AUTHOR: ROBERT C. MCKINNEY
INSTITUTION: INDIANA UNIVERSITY
DIRECTOR: SUZANNE PINCKNEY STETKEVYCH
A B S T R A C T
This dissertation examines the poetic contribution of the extremely prolific and versatile 'Abbâsid poet, Ibn al-Rûmî (d. 283/896). Part 1 reconstructs the poet's life and times. It provides a glimpse into a rather fluid period of Arabic literary history, in which the boundary between poetry and the prose arts was becoming increasingly permeable. This was due to many factors, but particularly to the rise of the phenomenon known as the munâzarah. This term originally denoted a theological disputation, with its own increasingly codified rules and methods, but the format was soon adopted by all intellectual disciplines. These munâzarahs preoccupied Ibn al-Rûmî's contemporaries from all walks of life and were of paramount importance in the dissemination of Hellenistic rhetorical theory and practice, and in the development of the nascent prose arts. It is known that Ibn al-Rûmî participated in these disputations, as did numerous of his patrons, and their influence on his themes and stylistics is examined in Part II.
Part III analyzes a full qasîdah in 282 verses. The celebrated poem, no. 444 in Ibn al-Rûmî's dîwân, well exhibits a number of the features of his poetry examined in Part II. During the course of the analysis, historical, bio-bibliographical and literary critical sources from within the tradition are used, as are studies of various classical and Renaissance literatures, and anthropological studies of ritual and ancient Arabian institutions, in order to elucidate both the immediate intent of the poem, and its deeper ritual message, form and structure.
Due to the poem's formidable length, it especially well exemplifies Ibn al-Rûmî's penchant for the literary technique known as istiqsâ' al-ma'ânî, or exhaustive pursuit of poetic conceits, and concomitant tûl al-nafas, or "long-windedness." It also manifests sophisticated organization, observable in a "two dimensional" patterning and a multitude of complex interrelationships which provide the poem with "perspective." The resulting towering architectonics of the poem offers a unique opportunity for the researcher to pursue an elucidation of "the micro-poetics of a macro-qasîdah."
TITLE: Making the Mahjar home: The construction of Syrian ethnicity in the United States, 1870--1930
SN: The-University-of-Chicago (0330)
This dissertation traces the development of Syrian ethnicity in the United States between 1870 and 1930. It describes the adaptation of pre-existing (or “homeland”) solidarities and cultural attributes, and analyzes the debates around gender, race, and nation that gave them meaning. The main conceptual outcome is a departure from an assimilation paradigm that has dominated the study of Arab immigration. In its place, I propose ethnicization, the construction of a sense of peoplehood vis à vis outsiders, as a more useful concept for understanding the history of Syrians—the first Arab immigrants in the United States—as they participated in economic, social and political networks that crossed geographical borders. Specifically, this study argues that Syrian ethnicity articulated around three problems in the pre and immediate post-World War One period. The first involved the nature and meaning of honor in the context of migration, the second addressed the racial identity of Syrians in relation to naturalization law, and the third involved their connection to a homeland national community during a period of transition from an Ottoman imperial order to a European colonial one. It is around this third issue, the diaspora's connection to the nation, that this project attempts to bridge the fields of American immigration and Middle East history. By showing how migration and ideas about the nation are linked, the argument is made that the Syrian diaspora must figure more prominently in our understanding of the discourse of Arab nationalism. The sources for this project consist of archival material from Damascus, Paris, and various locations in the United States. It also makes extensive use of the Arabic-language press published in Syria, and New York, the hub of Syrian immigrant literary culture and commercial activity. In addition to memoirs and other printed primary material, this dissertation uses oral histories deposited at the Smithsonian Institution, and those collected by the author in Syria and the United States. SO: VOLUME 61-03A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 1128 NO: AAI9965083
TITLE: Poetry of the Riddah Wars: Its Literary, Political, and Religious Aspects
AUTHOR: MUHAMMAD IZHAR UL-HAQ
INSTITUTION: INDIANA UNIVERSITY
DIRECTOR: SUZANNE PINCKNEY STETKEVYCH
A B S T R A C T
The poetry of the Riddah Wars developed during 632-634 A.D., just after the death of the Prophet Muhammad (632 A.D.). This poetry is the product of the religious and political conflict between the Muslims and the murtaddun (apostates). A large number of the Arab tribes who apostatized either rejected the authority of Abu Bakr, the newly elected Caliph, or refused to pay zakat to the Islamic government. This situation led both parties into a series of battles, which produced various genres of poetry. In this study various genres of this poetry, such as boasting (fakhr), invective (hija'), elegy and instigation (ritha' and tahrid) and excuse and regret (i'tidhar), are analyzed in the light of pre-Islamic (Jahili) poetry. The study concludes that, on the one hand the Riddah poetry, in general, is similar in themes and genres to Jahili poetry; but on the other, there is religious influence and Islamic terms and ideas incorporated into it.
The murtaddun boast of their apostasy, their tribal loyalties, fighting with and killing the Muslims, and withholding zakat. The Muslims are proud of their victories, and their loyalty, obedience, and commitment to Islam. Invective also revolves around loyalty and disloyalty to religion or tribe, flight from the battlefield, false claims of prophecy and personal attacks. Elegy is composed for those apostates who were slain by Muslims in the Riddah Wars. A poet laments his kinsmen, recalls their virtues and sheds tears for them. Riddah elegy follows the Jahili pattern, but without the theme of tahrid, instigation to vengeance. However, tahrid which contains an emotional appeal under the influence of religion and tribalism is composed separately. In the last type discussed, i'tidhar, a poet presents his regrets, repents his apostasy and submits to Islam and the authority of the Caliph, thereby joining the mainstream Muslim community. This poetry revolves around the issues of zakat and the political authority of Abu Bakr, Quraysh (the tribe of the Prophet), or Islam. Over all, the Riddah wars poetry is a showcase for all the competing tribal, religious and political loyalties of the period.
TITLE: Rudaki, the father of Persian poetry: A critical translation, along with commentary and historical background of the poetry of the tenth century Persian poet, Abu-Abdullah Ja'afar-Ibn Mohammad Rudaki
SN: Boston-University (0017)
The 10th century Persian poet, Rudaki, is considered to be the father of Persian poetry because he was the first major poet to write in New Persian. This dissertation argues that Rudaki holds a central position in the re-emergence of Persian identity following almost three centuries of Arab domination. The Arab conquest of Persia in the seventh and eighth centuries installed Islam as the official religion and Arabic as the predominant literary language. The gradual weakening of the caliphate and the distance of Khorasan (eastern Persia) from the caliph's power in Baghdad allowed the Samanid dynasty, which ruled eastern Iran for much of the 9th and 10th centuries, to create the atmosphere for a Persian literary “renaissance” by sponsoring Persian literature. Persian poetry flourished at the Samanid court in Bukhara, with Rudaki as its brightest star. The importance of Rudaki as a harbinger of Persian identity and a founding father of Persian poetry, coupled with the fact that his collected poems have never been translated into English, make an annotated translation of his works necessary. This dissertation also discusses various theoretical approaches to translating. It examines the many facets of a literary translation, including its pitfalls and opportunities. In particular, the analysis centers on the intricacies of translating 10th century Persian into modern English, highlighting the specific problems that arise when translating Rudaki. Finally, the dissertation gives two translations for each of Rudaki's poems: a literal translation that contextualizes each poem and provides different possible interpretations, and a “poetic” translation that aims to capture the aesthetic merits of the original. SO: VOLUME 61-03A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 1008 NO: AAI9965695
TITLE: The space in-between: The ambivalence of early Arab-American writers
DD: 1999 SN: The-University-of-Toledo (0232)
AB: This dissertation examines the origins of the ambivalence that was reflected in the lives and works of the early Arab-American writers at the turn of the nineteenth century into the early twentieth century. My intention is to show that this ambivalence is historically, politically, and culturally connected to the Western intervention into the Arab World during the nineteenth and early twentieth century. I attempt to show that the process of Westernization or the modernization that ensued from that intervention is connected to the social and cultural conditions that the early immigrants faced in the United States and that it influenced the lives and works of the early Arab-American writers. The study also draws attention to some misconceptions that resulted from the process of Westernization such as the assumption that the Western civilization was the ideal cultural model and that that the religion of Islam was the cause of Arab backwardness. Several steps were necessary in developing this study: (1) A survey of the historical background that led to Western colonialism in the Arab World; (2) a look into the historical and cultural misconceptions of critics and historians regarding the concept of the Modern Arabic Literary Renaissance; (3) an examination of the role of Lebanese Christians regarding Modernism, Arabism and Islam; (4) an exploratory look into the writers' ambivalence toward both Arab and American women; (5) focus on the writers' attitudes toward the Old and the New World and, (6) their ideological beliefs in relation to power systems. The early Arab-American writers located themselves in what I call “the space in-between” from which they oscillated between the Old and the New World with three basic dichotomies: The cultural division between East and West; the contrast between the ideological beliefs of some Christians and the Islamic social system, and the tension between what Werner Sollors calls “consent” and “descent” in American lives. The ideological convictions of the major Arab-American writers in regard to the above mentioned assumptions diverged in the later part of their careers. Al-Rihani took up Arab nationalism in conjunction with a vision of an international order where East and West participate in a reciprocal partnership. Gibran and Naimy pursued a transcendental, universalistic course that went beyond the issue of East and West. Abu-Madi wavered between the two positions. The in-between space from which the early writers wrote separated them from the pol! ! itics of colonialism. Not only did they isolate themselves from the struggles of the homeland, but also from the American mainstream experience. When they turned to the Arab World, they admired its historical past but rejected what they considered its backward present. Looking at the New World, they became fascinated with its scientific progress, democracy and freedoms, but they also resented what they saw as extreme materialism and lack of spiritualism. The duality and ambivalence that dominated the lives and works of early Arab-American writers was rooted in the political and cultural conditions in the Old and the New World. The present study underscores the necessity of contextual research in the study of Arab-American literary texts. It also suggests a re-examination of the above mentioned misconceptions. Based on these two issues, I see a necessity for the recovery of and reinterpretation of early Arab-American literature. This study is meant to provide a stepping stone for further research into Arab-American literature.
SO: VOLUME 60-12A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL.
TITLE: The Yemen Journals
DD: 1999 SN: The-University-of-North-Dakota (0156)
AB: The Yemen Journals is a collection of original poems that address experiences I had in Yemen and Ethiopia. Many of the poems examine the life I confronted in the physical and social settings of those countries, where beneath the exotic sense impressions and imagery lay questions of identity.
The poems in Yemen Journals chronicle my contact with unfamiliar cultures and consider the ways I changed during my six years in Yemen. I became fluent in Arabic, converted to Islam, married an Ethiopian-Yemeni woman, and became the father of twins. The more time I spent in Yemen, the more I felt the distinctions between my position as an observer and as a participant blur. The poems in this collection are intended to map the changes that result when the self, facing undefined roles, defines them.
SO: VOLUME 60-12A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL.
TITLE: Affiliation, discrimination, and well-being in modern Egypt: Cultural and social dimensions
SN: McGill-University-Canada (0781)
This thesis contributes to knowledge in the field of medical anthropology, particularly in Egypt and the Middle East, in two specific ways. First, the thesis demonstrates how a limited focus on kinship and micro social relations precludes a full understanding of the life experiences of people, especially at times of illness. The thesis shows that these conceptual limitations stem from a romanticized view of Egyptian culture—a view that poorly corresponds to the contemporary Egyptian situation. The thesis proposes that social networks And the ground between micro and macro social associations need to be incorporated into future studies of medical anthropology in general, and in Egypt and the Middle East in particular. Second, the thesis demonstrates how cultural values linked to the diversity of social classes and unequal access to social and financial capital shape illness experience. It is argued that access to biomedical services is a social manifestation of cultu! ! rally constructed subcultures where kinship, social networks, and social hierarchy produce the current inequalities in well-being among inhabitants of modern Egypt. A cultural and social analysis grounded in the history of Egyptian modernity is pursued here to better understand current inequality in social and physical well-being. Space, aesthetics, religion, network affiliation, and other factors constitute essential elements of this analysis. The thesis proposes integrating a study of the cultural manifestations of the production of social inequality into all future studies of illness in Egypt and the Middle East. It is concluded that a culture of social distinctions and discrimination prevails, and that such a culture shapes social relations and illness experience. Unless this culture is understood and addressed, there is little hope for an equal distribution of resources for well-being among Egyptians. SO: VOLUME 60-12A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 4493 NO: AAINQ44471
Araghchi, Seyed Abbas.
TITLE: The evolution of the concept of political participation in twentieth-century Islamic political thought.
University of Kent, 1996. (OCLC #48469815)
"The aim of the thesis is to identify the concept of political participation and its evolution as approached in the political thought of Muslim writers and intellectuals of the present century. The major question is: how the concept of political participation, as the manifestation of people's sovereignty in the Western liberal democracy, can be accommodated in, or coexist with, the divinely-inspired political theory of Islam in which sovereignty belongs unquestionably to God alone. . . . [The thesis considers] the political ideas of a number of the most influential Muslim thinkers who represent the main streams of twentieth-century Islamic political thought."
TITLE: Environment, ethics, and design: An inquiry into the ethical underpinnings for a contemporary Muslim environmentalism and its environmental design implications (Saudi Arabia)
DD: 1999 SN: University-of-Pennsylvania (0175)
AB: In Saudi Arabian urban landscapes, and across the Muslim world, negligence and the displacement of symbols of the natural reflect an inability amongst the public to find relevance, within the predominant development paradigm, to the Islamic ideals about nature, landscape, city, home, and garden. It also highlights the discontinuity between the Muslims' evolving scholarship on environment, on the one hand, and contemporary developments in the theory and practice of environmental planning and design on the other. Building on the dynamic nature of Islam as a framework for thought and life, I conduct a basic rereading of some relevant Islamic precepts. I look for intimations in support of a higher sensitivity towards nature and environment and still relevant to contemporary living. This then serves as a platform for generating a comprehensive, but by no means exhaustive, list of principles and themes for urban landscape design. I present these as useful tools to revive a positive attitude towards the environment and to engender a new sensibility, for designers, that captures the essence of tradition while remaining committed of design implications I supply help retain the potential for wider applicability. Because those themes and principles are at the seams of tradition and contemporaneity, the categories for the debate on the environment are derived accordingly. I, therefore, preface this inquiry with a survey of the historical shifts in the idea of nature in Western thought and the frustrations of the prevailing paradigms of modernism. I use examples, wherever feasible, to underscore the significance of urban-natural landscape as catalyst of values and ideas. The final product of the study depicts actual and potential applications for the aforementioned set of ecological design principles and themes in the recent experience of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. I present and critique two landscapes, representing different planning mindsets, scales, and contexts. The conclusions use the findings of this exercise to point out a future direction for local environmental design thinking and practice. SO: VOLUME 60-12A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 4229 NO: AAI9953502
TITLE: The Omani Basic Law - Change or Continuity?
AUTHOR: Nikolaus A. Siegfried
INSTITUTION: Free University of Berlin
SUPERVISOR: Gudrun Kraemer
A B S T R A C T
Over the past years, the Arab Gulf monarchies have adopted written legal frameworks founded on Islamic principles or even explicitly the Scharia. After King Fahd's proclamation of the Saudi Basic Law in 1992, Oman remained the only Arab country without a constitutional document. The Sultanate received a Basic Law on November 6, 1996 when Sultan Qabus issued Decree No. 101. But even though observers of Oman agree that the document is a milestone on the path to state formation, its impact on political and legal development is far from clear. One group (most recently Miller, 1997) claims that the Basic Law is a turning point towards a representative monarchy and democratization in the Sultanate, whereas others like Katz (1997) argue that the decree is basically a completion of the policy Qabus has followed until now. The latter argument is an extension of Pridham's (1986) who maintains that Qabus has in most respects pursued his father's way of governing rather than initiated a truly innovative regency. Within the framework of this controversy, this article investigates the innovative power of the Basic Law for Oman. On the background of Omani history, and European and Islamic constitutional thought the papers reviews Decree 101 with respect to authority and legitimacy in the Islamic country. Comparing the Basic Law with the constitutional texts of the other Gulf monarchies leads me to the conclusion that Oman's Basic Law does not set a truly innovative legal framework. Although the Decree confirms the adherence of national laws to international standards, civil liberties do not extend to the public sphere. The Basic Law`s main purpose is fixing the status quo of powers where the Sultan remains the only recognized authority in the state. Second, it is used to suggest a historically unfounded unity of the Omani nation, which is a basis for modern territorial states. The Decree makes the Sultan the symbol of this unity and thus helps to legitimize his authority.
TITLE: Egyptian higher education: Inconsistent cognitions
SN: University-of-Oxford-United-Kingdom (0405)
Education has played a critical role in the development of modern Egypt. Indeed, it has become a microcosm of Egyptian society, politics and culture—a stage in which Egypt has struggled to preserve and sustain its cultural integrity. Both external and internal forces continue to hamper the efficacy of Egypt's educational system by producing inconsistent and incompatible cognitions. Using Cognitive Dissonance Theory, this thesis is designed to analyze these forces through multiple modes of enquiry. Using historical, ethnographic and textual evidence, this thesis examines the social dissonance caused by different social groups as they define the appropriate role of Islam in public institutions such as the university. Egypt's educational dissonance can be traced to its long history of foreign intervention and a political leadership whose educational policies often run counter to the sentiment of the populace. This study examines the educational debate in Egypt and the ! ! ideological disjunction between a small but powerful elite who are the “gatekeepers” of educational policy, and a polity who is calling for a greater infusion of Islamic instruction in the national educational system. To examine this dialectic, extensive observations and in-depth interviews with students, professors and parents constitute a major source of data. A survey questionnaire, administered to 381 university students from the five Cairo metropolitan universities, measures attitudes toward social, cultural and religious themes in the Egyptian national curriculum. A statistical analysis of the data was based on selected cross tabulations with a Chi Square test for independence. What can be concluded from the study is that there exists a clear tension between the religious sentiments of the nation's student stratum and the Ministry of Education, an agency often perceived as pushing a secularist agenda. According to the study, a heavy majority considered the na! ! tional system of education too Westernized, needing a more integrated education formula that accommodates Islam and the needs of the modern world. The sample, while only tentatively representative of Egyptian public opinion at large, does provide important insight into general attitudes and sentiments of Egyptian society that are confirmed and reinforced by the other forms of triangulated research in this study. SO: VOLUME 60-11A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 3926 NO: AAI9950861
Hamid, Ahmad Fauzi Bin Abdul.
TITLE: Islamic resurgence in the periphery: a study of political Islam in contemporary Malaysia with special reference to the Darul Arqam movement 1968-1996. University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1998. (OCLC #48463171) ". . . investigates the political challenge posed by Darul Arqam, an Islamic movement, to the Malaysian state from 1968 until 1996. As a general manifestation of Islamic resurgence, the challenge sheds light on three important issues: the tactics, methods and strategies pursued by Islamic movements; the secular authorities' pattern of response to Islamic movements; [and] the impact of repression on Islamists. Applying the case-study of Darul Arqam to wider historical and situational settings, this thesis urges a rethinking of issues and concepts of general theoretical and practical significance."
Henry, Clarence C.
TITLE: The Iraq-Kuwait crisis, a critique of United States policy 1990-91.
University of Birmingham, 1995. (OCLC #48462791)
". . . argues that the United States manipulated the United Nations mechanism in order to achieve its foreign policy objective of destroying Saddam Hussein's military machine which posed a threat to American interests in the Middle East. The thesis highlights Iraq's position that the US had a covert agenda which during the height of the crisis was either ignored or dismissed. It postulates that the Bush administration pursued maximalist options in its six month pre-war coercive strategy against Iraq, instead of positively pursuing peaceful alternatives such as economic sanctions and diplomacy."
TITLE: History, theory and belief: A conceptual study of the traditional Mosque in Islamic architecture
SN: The-Pennsylvania-State-University (0176)
: This study seeks to contribute to the clarification of our understanding of the concept of the traditional Mosque through an exploration of historical and theoretical developments in traditional mosque architecture, especially with respect to The Muslim's relationship with the Divine. I trace the way in which Islamic Religious Architecture is an expression of the Muslim way of life, a product of religious requirements, and the result of unique cultural and environmental factors. I emphasize how Mosque architecture is a sacred architecture that reflects the ideals of unification and solidarity within Muslim society.
While I do not seek a precise or ‘definitive’ definition of the term ‘traditional’ as it is applied to mosque architecture, I do seek to make a significant contribution to the literature insofar as I help to clarify or reify our understanding of what can correctly be seen as ‘traditional’ in mosque architecture, vis-à-vis contemporary trends in the modern world. The central thrust of my thesis is that Islamic architectural tradition can indeed be defined, given form, and I seek to account for and explore the way in which tradition is of special importance to Islam, as compared with its sister religions in the West. I argue that fidelity to tradition, at least on some level, is imperative to the survival of mosque architecture, as we know it. I am especially concerned that this be done in such a way as to enhance the preservation of the unique identity and dignity of the Islamic architectural tradition.
I pay close attention to the concept of religious or sacred space, especially insofar as it is relevant to the Islamic Tradition and the way in which sacred architecture reflects a society's awareness of its relationship with the Divine. Through a comparison with Judaism and Christianity, Islam's sister Western religious traditions, especially the latter, I explore the various understandings of religious art and symbolism, as well as the unique historical realities that have shaped Muslim religious communities, and, subsequently, traditional mosque architecture. I also explore the diversity that is found in the architectural design of mosques and the key roles that mosques play in the definition of Islamic architecture in general. I have a special interest in and focus on the role of the mosque in traditional Moorish architectural styles in Morocco and Spain, as well as Ottoman styles in Turkey, which I see as especially salient examples of the artistic heights that tradition! !
TITLE: How to make Christ known among educated Muslim sisters in Surabaya, Indonesia
SN: United-Theological-Seminary (0456)
This document points out that one-sixth of the total population of the world is Muslim, yet only two percent of all the missionaries work in Muslim countries and educated Indonesia Muslim women are one of neglected groups by Christians. This document addresses the need to mobilize Korean Christian women living in Surabaya, Indonesia, where politics and culture restrict Christian mission activity among educated Muslim women. Research included relevant literature questionnaires, interviews, and personal observation in Surabaya, Indonesia. Results of the survey, evaluated by qualitative and quantitative analysis instruments support three hypotheses: (1) Korean Christian missionaries in Surabaya, Indonesia, could develop an effective ministry to educated Muslim women; (2) educated Muslim women in Surabaya are receptive to making friends with Koreans; (3) and Korean Christian women in Surabaya are willing to establish an effective ministry among educated Muslim ! ! women. The findings suggest that, generally, Indonesia Muslim women have more freedom than they have in other Muslim societies; are open-minded; and Indonesia has a particular Muslim culture which has possibly been influenced by Indonesia's ideology, Pancasila and indigenous cultures. Thus, there is need for outreach strategies and plans designed specifically to reach this group. The finding also suggest that educated Indonesia Muslim women are very religious: religion is the most important issue to them. The research indicates that Indonesian Muslim women and Korean Christian women share much in common in women's role and status in family and society, thus these two group of women could offer much to each other, even need each other for their growth. The document includes suggestions for ministry based on social characteristics of Indonesia, Islamic beliefs and culture, women's role in Islam and characteristics of both educated Indonesian Muslim women and Korean Christian women. SO: VOLUME 61-01A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 232 NO: AAI9958575
TITLE: Islam, democracy and religious modernism in Iran (1953--1997): From Bazargan to Soroush (Mahdi Bazargan, Abdulkarim Soroush)
SN: McGill-University-Canada (0781)
This dissertation aims to study the attempts made by contemporary Iranian religious modernists at reconciling Islam and democracy on the theoretical level. The prevailing theme in earlier studies on contemporary Iran has been that of Islamic resurgence or the socio-political outcome of the 1979 Revolution to the neglect of other significant issues or intellectual challenges faced by religious modernists in both the pre- and post-revolutionary eras, such as that of the problematic of Islam and democracy. The present work therefore, considers the views of certain Iranian religious modernists of the last fifty years on the question of whether Islam is theoretically compatible or incompatible with democracy. To this end, we examine the main principles of democracy and critically evaluate their parallels among Islamic norms. Then, the democratic notions of seven major Iranian religio-political thinkers are analyzed and evaluated in depth. We also try to show the perception tha! ! t these men had of democracy and of Islam, how they sought to bring the two into conformity, on what basis they structured their arguments, and how their attempt in this respect differed from that of their predecessors at the turn of the century. Among the contributions of the present work to the field is its attempt to present, for the first time, the post-revolutionary religious intellectual trend in Iran with particular reference to the problematic of Islam and democracy. This is largely accomplished through an analytical study of its leading figure, Abdulkarim Soroush. The result suggests that his attempt is an unprecedented one in terms of content, method and consequences. Indeed it is a watershed in Shī'ite religious modernism in general and in the debate over the compatibility of Islam with democracy, in particular. SO: VOLUME 60-12A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 4469 NO: AAINQ44463
TITLE: National itineraries: Tourism, nation-making, and geographies of "peace" in contemporary Israel
SN: Stanford-University (0212)
Based on fifteen months of field research, this dissertation investigates the cultural politics of “peace” in contemporary Israel during the Labor administration of Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres (1992–1996) as the government negotiated the terms of the “Middle East Peace Process” with the Palestinians and neighboring Arab states. Through an ethnographic approach, I argue that the Peace Process era was a critical time of cultural and epistemological reconfiguration in Israel, when new maps and meanings of the nation were generated, and when the terms of national inclusion were hotly contested by a variety of Israeli communities and institutions with very different histories in the nation-state and access to its symbolic and material resources. Tourism was at the center of “peace” culture in Israel, and provides an important and unexamined lens through which to investigate the historical conditions, effects, and meanings of “! ! peace” in Israel during the mid-1990s. Through this lens, I study the shifts in dominant Jewish culture and practice that both catalyzed and followed the diplomatic and economic realignment of the Middle East. I investigate the popular imaginations, geographies, ways of mapping, and objects of knowledge that the Middle East Peace Process has produced among heterogenous Israeli communities; the ways that regional and domestic policies of the state were negotiated and contested through cultural practices; and the new meanings of Israeli identity, space, culture, and history that these political processes generated. Using ethnography as my base, this project combines the tools and literatures of political economy, cultural and literary criticism, and cultural geography in an account for the interrelationship of cultural, economic, and political processes. SO: VOLUME 61-01A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 246 NO: AAI9958202
TITLE: Political philosophy of al-Ghazzali: An analysis
SN: McGill-University-Canada (0781)
This thesis deals with the political philosophy of al-Ghazzali from an analytical point of view. It focuses its examination on his theory regarding the imamate and sultanate.SO: VOLUME 38-03 OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 559 NO: AAIMQ43890
TITLE: Seeing through western eyes: A study of three women's Holy Land travel narratives (Harriet Martineau, Ida Pfeiffer, Austria, Amy Fullerton)
DD: 1999 SN: The-University-of-Manitoba-Canada (0303)
AB: I examine how three European women used the people of the Middle East to construct their selves in response to the constraints of religion and gender in their societies.
Harriet Martineau was a Unitarian, but embraced atheism. In the Middle East she encountered a form of Christianity that challenged her views about Jesus and religion. She also encountered women in harems who challenged her understanding of what a true woman was.
Ida Pfeiffer found travel to be liberating. She also discovered that this resulted in a conflicting relationship to her home. Her experiences in the Middle East caused her to critique her own society, yet her pilgrim activities in Jerusalem, in which she was unable to appreciate the forms of worship she encountered, reminded her how strongly her ties to home, particularly religious ties, actually were.
Amy Fullerton viewed the Middle East through Evangelical eyes. She focused on its biblical associations and the Protestant missionary work being carried out by single women. Through this focus she demonstrated that she was strongly committed to Evangelical ideas of biblical truth and ideals of women.
(Abstract shortened by UMI.)
SO: VOLUME 38-03 OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 557 NO: AAIMQ45043
TITLE: The Hadith in Christian-Muslim discourse in British India, 1857--1888 (French text)
SN: McGill-University-Canada (0781)
In the development of Islam in India in the nineteenth century, the impact of the interaction between modernist Muslims and Christian administrators and missionaries can be seen in the writings of three Evangelical Christians on the role of the H&dotbelow;adīth and the responses of Indian Muslims. The writings of Sir William Muir, an administrator in the Indian Civil Service, were characterized by European Orientalist methods of textual criticism coupled with the Evangelicals' rejection of Muh&dotbelow;ammad. SO: VOLUME 38-03 OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 558 NO: AAIMQ43881
Alsumaih, Abdulrahman M.
TITLE: The Sunni concept of Jihad in classical Fiqh and modern Islamic thought. University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1998. (OCLC #48469815)
" . . . aims to analyse the Shari'h law of Jihad, through investigation of the Quran, the Sunna and the works of earlier prominent Muslim jurists (fuqaha) and therefore elucidate the nature of Jihad and its components. It is the Muslims' belief that the Holy Quran and the Sunna were fixed for all time during the foundation of Islam which therefore suggests that the Shari'h law itself must be unchangeable as the Holy Quran and the Sunna are its two principal sources. . . . The second major purpose of this thesis is to test the hypothesis that human interpretation of the Shari'h law on Jihad will differ over time. . . .
TITLE: Faith in our schools? A study in portraiture of three teachers of religion
SN: Harvard-University (0084)
American classrooms at the dawn of the twenty-first century are as religiously pluralistic as they have ever been, yet like the public sphere they are preparing their students to join, classrooms are often the sights of religious controversies, misunderstandings, and prejudice. In the last decade of the twentieth century, controversies involving religion and schools have drawn increasing attention—in the press, in the courts, and among many diverse constituencies affected by issues of religion and education. Amongst this increasingly loud debate two constituencies are often overlooked: teachers and students. This study looks at three teachers of religion, one each in public, private and parochial schools in the Boston, Massachusetts, area who teach religion either as a subject area or within another discipline, in this case World History. The teachers were chosen via “snowball sampling” and the recommendations of their peers. The teachers are: Susan McCaslin of Phillips Academy, Andover; Jack Heidbrink of Lexington High School, Lexington; and Jonathan Yu-Phelps of Bishop Fenwick High School, Peabody. The courses I studied were—New Testament (McCaslin), Religion Units in World History (Heidbrink), and New Testament and Islam Unit in World Religions (Yu-Phelps) in their respective schools. The methodology of the study was Portraiture as described by Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot. The study includes a brief description of the relationship between the three American school systems and religion historically. This history sets the stage for the work that the three teachers do and explains the relationship between religion and education at the end of the twentieth century. The study finds that teachers of religion are providing students with unique opportunities to ask and discuss “ultimate questions” and to become religiously literate citizens. Reflecting the work of Charles Haynes and the First Amendment Center, I suggest, that the teaching of religion can in fact help us “teach Americans to live with our deepest religious differences.” The study also explores the reasons and goals, of teaching religion, “natural inclusion” versus the academic study of religion, and the role of teacher training and biography and faith. SO: VOLUME 61-04A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 1343 NO: AAI9968303
TITLE: Loyalty, love and faith: Defining the boundaries of the early Shi`ite community
SN: Princeton-University (0181)
The Shi`ite point of view is unique among all other Islamic schools in having formed the basis of a self-conscious religious community existing within the larger Islamic ummah >. Given that the foundation of the Shi`ite perspective is the early dispute over the leadership of the Islamic community, most Shi`ite studies have tended to focus on the authority issue and the development of the Shi`ite doctrine of the imamate. This study attempts to explore the other side of early Shi`ite development by focusing on the early evolution of the Shi`ite community itself, rather than its leadership. Specifically, it attempts an intellectual history of the emergence of a distinctly Shi`ite communal identity and the development of the Shi`ite conception of the nature and limits of their own religious community during the first two centuries of Islam. This study draws largely on works of canonical and non-canonical Shi`ite hadith, including a number of compilations purpor! ! SO: VOLUME 61-01A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 319 NO: AAI9957092
TITLE: Technologies of Islamic piety: Cassette-sermons and the ethics of listening
SN: The-Johns-Hopkins-University (0098)
AB: This dissertation addresses a range of questions about language and the body through an ethnographic study of cassette-sermons in Egypt. Three dimensions of cassette-sermon practice were central to my project. First, I examined cassette-sermon listening as an ethical exercise aimed at cultivating a modern form of Islamic piety, one rooted in a long tradition of moral self-cultivation. My analysis focuses on contemporary sermon rhetorics and the demands of proper audition which these place on listeners, among them, a familiarity with a variety of classical and modern knowledges, certain forms of concentration and responsiveness, as well as competence in a particular affective-gestural repertoire—the embodied dispositions which undergird well-informed reasoning within contemporary traditions of Islam. Secondly, I locate the new practices of cassette-sermon audition in relation to the historical trajectory of the broader Islamic movement in Egypt since the 19th century. As a technology of individual piety, these tapes join the individual's task of cultivating Islamic virtues with broader social concerns of the Islamic awakening, including issues of societal transformation, state legal reform, and national and international politics. Thus, my dissertation explores how tapes provide a medium for public discussion of a wide variety of issues relevant to contemporary Egyptian society, a discussion, however, conducted on the basis of the ethical capacities, orientations, and goals toward which the act of sermon audition is geared. Lastly, I argue that the cassette-sermon provides an opportunity to explore the impact of mass media and modern print-oriented literacies on the forms of contemporary piety, and the conditions of religious practice within Egypt more generally. Of particular concern to me here is the question of how the virtues listeners sought to cultivate were mediated, on the one hand, by functional possibilities of cassette technology, such as mobility, replay, and discontinuous listening; and on the other, by the discursive conventions of the modern print and televisual-based public sphere. To this end, my work explores the complicated interplay between the cassette medium and the institutional, cultural, and religious contexts within which it is employed.
SO: VOLUME 60-11A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL.
TITLE: Two regards upon Islam: Edward Said and Bernard Lewis (or postmodernity looks at modernity in the face)
SN: Universite-Laval-Canada (0726)
Two of the most important authors on Islamic civilization, historian Bernard Lewis and cultural critic Edward Said, have opposite views as to how scholars should approach the study of the Islamic civilization. On Lewis's side, a modernist style, without regard to ideological problems, and with a firm conviction on the possibility of gaining practical knowledge about his subject. Lewis uses history as his scholarly tool. On Said's side, the postmodern attitude, mistrust on the power of ideology to permeate each facet of human life, including scholarship. He uses literary criticism as his scholarly tool. Lewis preaches scholarly knowledge independent of power forces; Said lectures on the power of imperialism and its influence on the academic world. This paper is an analysis of both authors' works; a measured balance between their systems and what their opposite views mean to contemporary scholarship.
SO: VOLUME 38-03 OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. PAGE 593 NO: AAIMQ44679
TITLE: Unveiling the mask: Representation of women on Dubai (United Arab Emirates) television
DD: 1999 SN: Ohio-University (0167)
AB: This research explores the various level of meanings embedded in the images represented of women, television anchors in particular, on Dubai (UAE) TV. Approaches taken to decipher these images are grounded in the methodologies of interpretations, especially those coming from Arab/Islamic traditions. Arab/Islamic interpretation, (Ibn Arabi in particular), negotiates various aspects of concern to this research. This approach negotiates, or rather negates, the move used by most current Arab scholars to utilize Western methodological approaches in the Arab regions and argues that every tradition has its own ways of understanding and articulation of meanings. Globalization, centrality of vision, the concept of “simulacra” (Baudriallard), and how they cross all boundaries of cultures and places are addressed in this research, especially as they are related to the construction of images of women in modern media institutions. The feminine position in Islam and how it is understood and articulated, especially in the tradition of intellectual Islam, is a primary focus in this research. Vision centrality in the modern West is addressed in this research in order to negotiate how the issue of “veiling” is understood within this centrality. Colonialism and its new, more sophisticated outcome, neo-colonialism, are some of the elements addressed in this research in order to understand how modern mass media institutions in the Arab regions, taking the West as their model and point of reference, construct images of women as well as articulating their relationships to Arab cultures. The finding of this research reveals that images of women on Dubai TV are loaded with western, rather than Arab/Islamic, codes. The female body on Dubai TV is treated as material, objectified, and presented as a site of gaze.
SO: VOLUME 60-12A OF DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL.
Dissertations Database / The Center for Research Libraries --more than 750,000 uncataloged foreign doctoral dissertations (Doctoral dissertations from countries other than Canada and the United States).
U.K. Doctoral Dissertations
Index to Theses Accepted for Higher Degrees by the Universities of Great Britain and Ireland
Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD)
Middle East & Islamic Studies http://www.library.cornell.edu/colldev/mideastAli Houissa, The Middle East & Islamic Studies Bibliographer