Using Kodak PhotoCD Technology for Preservation and Access:
A Guide for Librarians, Archivists, and Curators
Anne R. Kenney and Oya Y Rieger
Department of Preservation and Conservation, Cornell University Library for
New York State Education Department, Program for the Conservation and Preservation of Library Material

FORM 2

  Kodak Photo CD Project

IMAGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT SURVEY

THE ACCOMPANYING APPENDICES ARE DESIGNED TO ASSIST YOU IN COMPLETING THIS SURVEY. WE RECOMMEND THAT YOU READ THEM THOROUGHLY BEFORE FILLING OUT THIS FORM.

Institution:______________________________________

Please check all the following specifications that apply to your image quality evaluation process:

 

Please note any deviations you will have from the recommended evaluation methodology presented in the appendices (such as not using Photoshop Acquire, or not controlling the lighting environment) in the space provided for notes in appropriate sections.

A. Document Description

1. Document height (in inches to the nearest 1/16"):______________

2. Document width (in inches to the nearest 1/16"):_______________

If you have a halftone document, please skip to Question 8.

3. Describe the smallest significant detail and its location in your document:

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

A significant detail is the smallest complete part of a document that is considered essential to the document's meaning. For textual materials, it is usually gauged against the smallest lower case 'e'. For non-textual materials, examples of significant details include an eye of a man in a portrait, a single pearl in a woman's necklace, a small bird in the background of a painting, or contour lines in a map. Hint: Find a very sharp and crisp detail rather than one that is fuzzy or not as well defined.

4. What is the color of the detail?____________________________________

5. Significant detail height (in millimeters to the nearest 1/10 mm): ____________

To measure the significant detail, use an eye lupe [1] or a microscope
that can distinguish detail as small as 0.1 mm.

6. Describe the finest stroke width and its location in your document:

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

Examples: A fine line in a document, such as the thinnest line width used to render a letter in a manuscript, the thickness of a telephone line in a photograph, fringes of a hat in a sketch, etc.

7. Stroke width (in millimeters to the nearest 1/10 mm): ____________

To measure the significant detail, use an eye lupe or a microscope
that can distinguish detail as small as 0.1 mm.

8. Describe the selected document dimension (in inches):

____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

A selected document dimension is the width of a section of your document, such as the distance between the roof of a house and a street sign in a photograph, or the length of a line of text in a letter. This dimension will be used to correlate pixels to inches so as to determine the effective resolution (DPI) of the digital image. Avoid selecting a measurement near the edge of the document.

9. Selected document dimension (in inches to the nearest 1/16"):______________

10. Color Information (please check one):

o Black and white [2]
o Color monochrome [3]
o Color [4]

11. Document Type (please check one):

o Typed or printed text/line art
o Manuscript
o Halftone or halftone-like
o Continuous tone or continuous tone-like
o Mixed

All paper and film-based documents fall into one of the following categories:
Typed or printed text/line art:
Distinct edge-based representation, with no tonal variation. Includes typed or printed texts, line drawings, woodcuts, maps, music scores, etc.
Manuscript: Hand produced text, line drawings, blue prints, maps, etc.
Halftone or halftone-like: Regularly spaced pattern of dots or lines, often placed at an angle. Includes graphic art that is created using a fine and highly regular pattern of lines or hatchmarks, such as line engravings, etchings, etc.
Continuous tone or continuous tone-like: Smoothly varying gradation of tones. Includes photographs and some original art work, such as charcoal sketches, watercolors as well as graphic art, such as aquatints, lithographs, collotypes, etc.
Mixed: Contains both text/line art and continuous tone or half-tone. Includes newspapers, magazines, illustrated books, etc.

The following questions are only for halftone documents:

12. Screen ruling for halftone documents [5]:_____________

13. Is the halftone a representation of a:

o Photograph o Drawing o Other________________



B. Resolution

1. Effective DPI (refer to Appendix D: Measuring Resolution)

2. Stroke (refer to Appendix E: Inspection of Legibility and Fine Detail)

3. Significant detail (refer to Appendix F: Inspection of Legibility and Fine Detail)

 Notes:

 

 

 



C. Image Evaluation: Legibility and Detail

The following questions are designed to assist you in evaluating the image. When you are answering them, please examine the digital image and compare it to the original document. Inspect legibility, completeness, darkness, contrast, sharpness, uniformity, and color and tone reproduction following the recommendations presented in Appendix B (Recommended Viewing Conditions), Appendix E (Inspection of Legibility and Fine Detail), and Appendix F (On-screen Color Quality Assessment). While evaluating the digital image, bear in mind the condition of the original document. For example, if the original is discolored, blotchy, dirty, or smeared, the digital image should convey these attributes.

As you review each item, the following factors should be considered in determining your rating of its overall quality. These are divided into those affecting the quality of text/line art and those to consider in evaluating continuous tone and halftone images. If the document falls into the category of "mixed," consider all of the factors presented in the two categories.

 

TEXT/LINE ART DOCUMENTS (as compared to the original)

1. Is the stroke adequately reproduced?________
Image: Yes____ No _____ 

2. Is the significant detail adequately reproduced?________
Image: Yes____ No _____

3. Is the smallest text readable?
Image: Yes____ No _____

4. Are individual line widths (thick, medium, and thin) rendered faithfully?
Image: Yes____ No _____

5. Are serifs and fine detail rendered faithfully?
Image: Yes____ No _____

6. Are adjacent letters separated as they should be?
Image: Yes____ No _____

7. Are the open regions of lower-case characters retained (i.e., not filled in )?
Image: Yes____ No _____

8. Is the edge of individual letters or shapes smooth or well-defined (not ragged [6]) in comparison to the original (at 1:1 view)?
Image: Yes____ No _____

9. Is there good contrast or differentiation between the text and the background?
Image: Yes____ No _____

10. Is there even illumination across the image? (i.e., not washed out or too dark)
Image: Yes____ No _____

11. Is the image free of gray cast or streaking in the background?
Image: Yes____ No _____

12. Is the document fully reproduced?
Image: Yes____ No _____

Notes:

 

 

CONTINUOUS TONE AND HALFTONE DOCUMENTS

Answer the following three questions (1-3) only for continuous tone documents:

1. Is the stroke adequately reproduced?
Image: Yes____ No _____

2. Is the significant detail adequately reproduced?
Image: Yes____ No _____

3. Is fine detail present in the darkest and lightest portions of the original retained in the copy?
Image: Yes____ No _____

4. Are there even gradations across the image (e.g., no banding, streaking, newton rings, or graininess)?
Image: Yes____ No _____

5. If it is an halftone document, is the image free of a moire effect (watered or wavy patterns)?
Image: Yes____ No _____

6. Does the image convey the significant informational content present in the original?
Image: Yes____ No _____

7. Is the document fully reproduced?
Image: Yes____ No _____

Notes:

 

  


D. Image Evaluation: Color

Complete this section only if you have identified the document as "Color" or "Color monochrome" in Section A, Question 10.

Kodak Reference Image

Answer the following questions after calibrating your monitor and viewing Kodak's reference image as explained in Appendix F (On-screen Color Quality Assessment, Section "Set Your Neutrals Right"). Give yourself 2-3 minutes for your eyes to adjust to the reference image.

1. Are most of the 64 patches of the reference image distinctly visible?
Yes____ No _____

2. How many patches are distinct in each of the rows (begin with the top row)
1st row _____
2nd row _____
3rd row _____
4th row _____
5th row _____
6th row _____
7th row _____
8th row _____

2. Does the first row exhibit the least change?
Yes____ No _____

3. Does the eight row exhibit less change compared to the middle rows?
Yes____ No _____

4. Do the patches appear as pure white, black and tones of gray?
Yes____ No _____

5. If your answer to the previous question is "No", is there an obvious shift towards a certain color?

Blue cast____ Red cast____ Green cast____ Yellow cast____ Other_________

6. Place your cursor on the gray border framing the reference bar. Use the Window/Show Info [7] option of Photoshop to read the color (RGB) values presented at the top left corner of the dialog box. What are the values?

R______ G_______ B______

 Notes:

 

 

 

PHOTO CD IMAGE

Compare the Photo CD image to the original document, and answer the following questions:

1. Do you observe a color shift in the overall image?
Yes____ No _____

2. If your answer to the previous question is 'Yes,' is there an obvious shift to a certain color?
Blue cast____ Red cast____ Green cast____ Yellow cast____ Other_________

3. Compare the image to the original document, and evaluate the appearance of the following colors:

Red:

with minimal shift_____

with obvious shift_____

to which color?_____

Green:

with minimal shift_____

with obvious shift_____

to which color?_____

Blue:

with minimal shift_____

with obvious shift_____

to which color?_____

Yellow:

with minimal shift_____

with obvious shift_____

to which color?_____

4. Evaluate color appearance in the highlights (lighter sections), mid-tones, and shadows (darker sections), and answer the following questions:

Highlights

with minimal shift_____

with obvious shift_____

to which color?_____

Mid-tones

with minimal shift_____

with obvious shift_____

to which color?_____

Shadows

with minimal shift_____

with obvious shift_____

to which color?_____

5. Is there an overall darkness or lightness to the image? Please describe:

 

6. If you observed a color shift, did you use any of Adobe Photoshop's color and tone adjustment tools (Levels and Curves) mentioned in Appendix F (On-screen Color Quality Assessment) to correct the image?
Yes______ No_______

7. If your answer to the previous question is "Yes," were you able to duplicate the original color appearance? Please explain:

 

Notes:

 

GRAYSCALE TARGETS USED IN PHOTOGRAPHY/SCANNING

1. How many grayscale bars can you count on your grayscale image? _______

2. If your grayscale target is numbered, at what number do you cease to discern distinction among different shades of white, gray, and black? _______

Open Kodak reference image, and place it close to the grayscale target included in your image. Compare the colors of these two different grayscale targets, and answer the following questions:

3. Do you notice an overall color shift between the reference image and the grayscale target?
Yes____ No _____

4. If your answer to the previous question is "Yes," what color does it shift toward? Please explain:

 

5. Use the Window/Show Info option of Photoshop to read the color (RGB) values presented at different grayscale steps. What are the values for the following levels [8] ?

shadow

R______ G_______ B______

middletone

R______ G_______ B______

highlight

R______ G_______ B______

6. For each of the above RGB readings, divide the smallest number by the largest number and record these values for each range [9] :

shadow

small value divided by large value = _________

middletone

small value divided by large value = _________

highlight

small value divided by large value = _________

Notes:

 

COLOR TARGETS USED IN PHOTOGRAPHY/SCANNING

Answer the following questions only if you have Q13 or Q14 Kodak Color or Gray Scale target. Display the original printed color target, and compare their colors to the color target included in your document's image.

1. Evaluate the appearance of the following colors (of the color target image and its printout) as compared to the original color target:

Red:

with minimal shift_____

with obvious shift_____

to which color?_____

Green:

with minimal shift_____

with obvious shift_____

to which color?_____

Blue:

with minimal shift_____

with obvious shift_____

to which color?_____

Yellow:

with minimal shift_____

with obvious shift_____

to which color?_____

D. Overall Evaluation

1. Is anything missing in the image that is considered essential information conveyed by the original (e.g., the translucency of a water color)? Please describe:

 

2. Check the following statement that represents your overall evaluation of the image:

 

 PLEASE SEND THE COMPLETED IMAGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT SURVEY TO:

Oya Y. Rieger
701 Olin Library
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853


Footnotes:

(1) Scale lupes can be purchased from Edmund Scientific Company (609-573-6270), National Microsales Corporation (203-377-0479) or PEAK (708-469-7070). (Return to Text)

(2) Black media (e.g., ink) on light background or monochrome document in which color information is not significant. (Return to Text)

(3) Monochromic images where the color information should be retained. For example, the colors used in many 19th century photographic print processes, the purplish-brown colors of albumen prints, or the blue color of cyanotypes. (Return to Text)

(4) Colored media or support where color information is considered critical to documents' meaning. (Return to Text)

(5) A screen finder will be needed to measure the halftone screen ruling. It can be purchased from any art supply store. (Return to Text)

(6) Edge raggedness relates to the "smoothness" or "straightness" of edges along lines at very close inspection. Special attention should be paid to curved and diagonal lines on characters and line graphics, as compared to the original. (Return to Text)

(7) You can determine the color values of any part of your image by using Photoshop's Info palette (Windows/Show Info). After you open the Info palette, position the pointer over any part of your image, and the color value under the pointer will be displayed at the top left column of the palette. For example, when you place the pointer over the gray frame of the reference bar, all the color values will be 96, indicating pure gray. When you are viewing the reference bar, your image should be displayed in RGB mode. You can verify this by making sure that the left column reads RGB, not CYMK. Refer to the Adobe Photoshop manual to interpret these color values. (Return to Text)

(8) In the Q13 or Q14 Kodak Gray Scale Target, 'shadow' will be step 19, 'middletone' will be step M, and 'highlight' will be step A of the target. (Return to Text)

(9) For example, if the value for R is 95, G is 93, and B is 84, divide 84 into 95, which equates to 0.88. The closer this value is to one, the more faithful the color representation is. We are considering using this method as a way to set requirements for photography and scanning (e.g., the color shift should not be greater than 0.15). (Return to Text)