size and pixel dimensions
The amount of an image that can be displayed at once depends on the relationship of the image's pixel dimensions (or dpi) to the monitor's desktop setting. The percentage of an image displayed can be increased several ways: by increasing the screen resolution and/or by decreasing the image resolution.
Increasing screen resolution. Think of the desktop setting as a camera viewfinder. As the monitor setting dimensions increase, more of an image may be viewed. The figure below illustrates the viewing area for an image at various monitor settings.
Decreasing image resolution. One can also increase the amount of an image displayed by reducing the resolution of the image through scaling. This figure illustrates the relationship of a monitor's desktop setting at 800 x 600 to an image scaled to various resolutions.
Balancing Legibility and Completeness: Displayed at 200 dpi on a 800 x 600 monitor, one can only see a small portion of the page (left). At 60 dpi, the whole page is fully displayed, but at the expense of legibility (bottom-right). Scaling the image to 100 dpi offers a compromise by maintaining legibility and limiting scrolling to one dimension (top-right).
You can calculate the percent of display if you know the following variables: 1) document dimensions and image dpi, or pixel dimensions of image, and 2) desktop setting.
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