Last updated March 2004.
Guide No.13A (1988)
End sheets in Common Use
End sheets are designed to provide sound and flexible connections between
the binding and the text block. The end sheets discussed here are basic
to most simple bindings, and incorporate Japanese tissue hinges to avoid
creating a hard edge against the first and last leaves of the book. The
Japanese tissue hinge, although soft and flexible, is long fibred and
strong and quite able to withstand the constant flexing of an inner joint.
The Tipped-On End Sheet
This end sheet is used when the original sewing is sound and the book
is to be re cased. It is used instead of the single-folio end sheet tipped
directly onto the first and last leaves, as the flexing action of the
flyleaf in this case, tends to pull the first and last leaves off the
book. Generally, materials consist of a suitable Japanese tissue (similar
to Kitakata) and folios of a suitable end sheet paper, such as Permalife
Ledger. Paper fiber machine direction must be parallel to the joint.
I. Processes: Lining the End Sheet
1.Strips of Japanese tissue are cut to the height of the end sheet x 1.5
centimeters (5/8"). The end sheet is made up of a single folio slightly
larger than the text block.
2.A line of P.V.A. adhesive is laid down approximately 3 mm. (1/8") from
the folded edge of the end sheet. (If large groups of end sheets are being
made, an edge-gluing machine can be used to good advantage; alternatively,
the end sheets can be fanned in groups and adhesive applied to the fold
3.The Japanese tissue strip is laid onto the line of glue to cover it
completely, and set down firmly with the fingers. When the glue is dry,
the tissue is folded around the end sheet.
I. Attaching the End sheet.
1.Ensure that the first and last leaves are firmly attached. If they are
loose, they should be secured by hinging, remembering to similarly secure
their conjugate leaves. If a few leaves are loose, they should be lightly
overcast (see Manual Guide No. 26).
2.A line of adhesive (P.V.A. or mixture) is applied to the inside of the
backing shoulder, and the end sheet set firmly into place with the tissue
hinge to the book. When both end sheets have been attached, the shoulder
is gently set in with a bone folder.
3.As most books in this category will retain their original edges (i.e.
not trimmed), laying the end sheet to the head at the front and the tail
at the back will more easily facilitate hand trimming.
4.When the book has been gently rounded and backed, it is important that
the backbone be properly lined with an appropriate stretch cloth extending
approximately 4 centimeters (1 1/2") onto each end sheet. This back lining
provides most of the joint fold strength.
It should be noted that the inner edge of the tissue is not adhered. This
is to avoid the adhesive and the tissue combining to form a hard, knife-like
edge against which the outer leaves may break.
The Sewn End Sheet
This end sheet will normally be used when a book to receive a simple binding
needs to be sewn, usually (but not exclusively) onto linen tape.
1.The end sheets consist of double folios (i.e. one folio inside the other)
with the outer folio prepared as the tipped-on end sheet described above.
2.The end sheets are sewn onto the book in the normal way, except that
each tape is completely encircled by the thread presenting the appearance
of a continuous line of thread on the inside of each end sheet.
3.When the back is glued up, the loose inner tissue hinge will attach
itself to the outer leaves of the book, providing a flexible supplementary
attachment while avoiding lateral "pull" strain.
The Single-Section End Sheet
This end sheet is used for single-section, pamphlet-like structure.
1.The entire end sheet is made up of a full double-folio wrapped around
the text block.
2.A piece of linen or sized cotton (similar to Gane's hinge cloth) is
glued and applied evenly around the outer fold to lie approximately 4
centimeters (1 1/2") onto the front and back.
3.When the book is sewn, the needle will pierce the end sheet and linen
lining for a secure attachment. If the binding is to be cased, the tie-off
knot should be on the outside, with a light touch of P.V.A. on it to prevent
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